HISTORY OF CHRIST CHURCH
NEW BERN, N. C.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
E. K. Bishop
Nof th Csrolin. St«f Library
HISTORY OF CHRIST CHURCH
NEW BERN, N.C.
Gertrude S. Carraway
Authorized by the vestry of Christ Church
protestant episcopal church
the rev. charles e. williams, rector
E. K. bishop, Senior warden
OWEN G. DUNN, PUBLISHER
NORTH ■ LINA LIBRARY C0ft
3K N. C.
In commemoration of the 225th anniversary of
the establishment of Christ Church Parish in 1715
and the 200th anniversary of the Act of the General
Assembly on August 21, 1740, authorizing erection
of the first parish church here; and in honor of the
Hon. Edward K. Bishop, for more than half a cen-
tury a vestryman, first elected April 24, 1889, serv-
ing as Secretary and Junior Warden at different
times, and for the past eighteen years Senior
Warden, first named to this high position of leader-
ship and responsibility April 3, 1922 — able, loyal,
and true, a worthy successor of worthy predecessors.
For all Thy saints, Lord,
Who strove in Thee to live,
Who followed Thee, obeyed, adored,
Our grateful hymn receive.
For Thy dear saints, Lord,
Who strove in Thee to die,
Who counted Thee their great reward,
Accept our thankful cry.
Thine earthly members fit
To join Thy saints above,
In one communion ever knit,
One fellowship of love.
Jesus, Thy Name we bless
And humbly pray that we
May follow them in holiness,
Who lived and died for Thee.
— Bishop Richaed Mant, 1837.
TWO CENTURIES OF SERVICE
For two centuries of service, progress and inspiration,
Christ Episcopal Church has held an important place,
literally and figuratively, in the heart of New Bern,
second oldest town of North Carolina.
Its spire, pointing skyward, higher than anything else
in the city, is rimmed with a large crown, symbolic of
everlasting life, not only for the Church triumphant but
also for those stalwart Christians who try to further the
Kingdom of God on earth.
The twenty-six rectors, the assistant ministers and
many members have exercised a vital influence on the
history of the region. To a great extent the history of
the local Church is a history of the community.
These patriots of the Cross have bequeathed a priceless
heritage for the Church and Church members of today
and tomorrow — a tower of strength during the past, a
beacon of light in the present, and a guiding star for the
"Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give
thee the Crown of Life." — Revelation 2:10.
RECTORS OF CHRIST CHURCH
James Reed 1753-1777
Leonidas Cutting 1785-1792
Solomon Halling 1792-1795
Thomas P. Irving 1796-1813
George Strebeck 1813-1815
Jehu Curtis Clay 1817-1818
Richard S. Mason 1818-1828
John R. Goodman 1828-1834
John Burke 1835-1837
Cameron F. McRae 1838-1842
Fordyce M. Hubbard 1842-1847
William N. Hawks 1847-1853
Henry F. Greene 1854-1857
Thomas G. Haughton 1857-1858
Alfred A. Watson 1858-1862
Edward M. Forbes 1866-1877
Charles S. Hale 1877-1881
Van Winder Shields 1881-1889
T. M. N. George 1890-1905
L. G. H. Williams 1905-1907
John H. Brown 1908-1910
B. F. Huske 1910-1917
Daniel G. MacKinnon 1917-1925
Guy H. Madara 1926-1930
I. DEL. Brayshaw 1931-1934
Charles E. Williams 1934-
Two Centuries of Service...
Rectors of Christ Church..
Table of Contents
Early Colonial Religion
First Ministers in East Carolina
Establishment of Church
Craven County Settled
Local Parish Designated
Freedom of Worship Again Decreed.
Union of Church and State
New Church Acts
First Local Church
East Carolina Missionaries
Gifts from King George
The Rev. James Reed, First Rector 47
Royal Governor Arthur Dobbs 50
Large Parish Territory 54
Numerous Church Bills 58
First Public School 61
Other Services of "Parson" Reed._ 64
Church and School 68
Royal Governor William Tryon 72
The Rev. James McCartney 76
Tryon Asks More Aid 79
Royal Governor Josiah Martin 82
Tomlinson Assists Rector..._ 85
The Revolutionary Period and
Disestablishment of the Church 89
Death of Mr. Reed... 95
The Rev. Leonidas Cutting 98
Steps Toward Organization 102
The Rev. Solomon Halling 105
First Bishop Elected for North Carolina 109
The Rev. Thomas P. Irving _ 112
The Rev. George Strebeck and The Rev.
John Phillips, Assistant Rector 119
The Rev. Jehu Curtis Clay and
Organization of the Diocese.. 121
The Rev. Richard Sharpe Mason 124
XXXV. Other Local Denominations 129
XXXVI. Second Episcopal Church Building 136
XXXVII. The Rev. John R. Goodman 141
XXXVIII. The Rev. John Burke._„ 144
XXXIX. The Rev. Cameron F. McRae._ 147
XL. The Rev. Fordyce M. Hubbard 149
XLI. The Rev. William N. Hawks 151
XLII. The Rev. Henry F. Greene 158
XLIII. The Rev. Thomas G. Haughton.„ 162
XLIV. The Rev. A. A. Watson 166
XLV. The Rev. Edward M. Forbes 172
XLVI. Church Fire 177
XLVII. The Rev. Charles S. Hale 183
XLVIII. The Rev. Van Winder Shields. 185
XLIX. The Rev. T. M. N. George 188
L. The Rev. L. G. H. Williams 192
LI. The Rev. John H. Brown 195
LII. The Rev. B. F. Huske._ 197
LIII. The Rev. Daniel G. MacKinnon 200
LIV. The Rev. Guy H. Madara 204
LV. The Rev. I. deL. Brayshaw 207
LVI. The Rev. Charles E. Williams 210
LVII. The Rt. Rev. Thomas C. Darst 216
Christ Church Vestrymen 219
E. K. Bishop Frontispiece
First Local Church — 1750 32
Communion Silver, Presented by King George II 48
Second Local Episcopal Church — 1824 128
Present Episcopal Church — 1875 __ 176
Christ Church Altar..._ 192
Showing Communion Silver and Memorial Cloth.
The Rev. Charles E. Williams 208
The Rt. Rev. Thomas C. Darst..._ 209
EARLY COLONIAL RELIGION
That the early colonists in Eastern North Carolina had
faith and religion is evidenced by many historical facts,
and, although for a history of Christ Church, New Bern,
it is manifestly impossible to go fully into an account of
Christianity through the entire section, nevertheless it is
important to mention a few outstanding events that
transpired before the settling of this city.
During Colonial days the church was usually the chief
center of a settlement. Upon it our American fore-
fathers depended often for educational and social privi-
leges as well as religious inspiration. Christ Church
played as vital a role along all these lines as any other
factor in this community, and as material a part as prac-
tically any other church in any other region.
On August 13, 1587, Manteo, Indian friendly to the
white colonists in Governor John White's English settle-
ment on Roanoke Island, was baptised, 1 this being believed
to be the first Christian baptism by the English on terri-
tory now comprising the United States. Some days later
Virginia Dare, first white child of English parentage born
in the New World, was also christened at old Fort
In 1607, as English colonists started up the James River
to found the first permanent English settlement at James-
town, Va., they disembarked first at Cape Henry on April
26. With religious ritual they planted there a crude
wooden cross, symbolic of faith in God and confidence in
the future. 3 Episcopal services are continued there an-
nually in tribute to their piety and pioneer spirit.
Religion was also made an integral part of the daily life
of other later settlements in Virginia and Carolina. In-
deed, many persons came to this continent mainly for
freedom of worship. Others were stimulated to religious
zeal in their new homes. In almost all colonies buildings
were set apart for public worship, sometimes private
10 CROWN OF LIFE
homes were thus used. For wide stretches where houses
were scattered, however, religion had to be an individual
or family devotion.
The first charter granted March 24, 1663, by King
Charles II of England to the original eight Lords Proprie-
tors of Carolina stated that these leaders were "excited
with a laudable and pious zeal for the propagation of the
Christian faith, and the enlargement of our empire and
dominion" by settling "in the parts of America not yet
cultivated or planted, and only inhabited by some bar-
barous people who have no knowledge of Almighty God." 4
As today, one of His Majesty's titles was "Defender of the
Liberty of conscience and freedom of worship were al-
lowed under both the first and second Carolina charters,
although it was distinctly understood that the Church of
England was to be the established church in the colony
just as it was in the Mother Country. 6
Under John Locke's "Fundamental Constitutions or the
Grand Model of Government," accepted March 1, 1669, 7
which had great ideals of liberty 8 though failing to func-
tion suitably for scattered inhabitants in Carolina, 9 it
was declared :
"It shall belong to the Parliament to take care for the
building of churches and the public maintenance of di-
vines, to be employed in the exercise of religion, according
to the Church of England ; which being the only true and
orthodox, and the national religion of all the King's do-
minions, is so also of Carolina, and therefore it alone shall
be allowed to receive public maintenance by grant of
No missionary societies were in the world during the
17th century, and there were no missionaries on this con-
tinent except a few traveling Quaker preachers. But, at
the close of that century the Bishop of London sent the
Rev. Thomas Bray (1656-1730) to Maryland to settle
some differences there and to study church conditions. 11
Dr. Bray visited various American colonies, and became
intensely interested in their religious conditions. Upon
EARLY COLONIAL RELIGION 11
his return to England, he reported in 1700 the immediate
need of missionaries in the New World. 12
i White, John, Account of Lost Colony. Published by Richard
Hakluyt, Vol. Ill, p. 340.
3 "On the nine and twentieth day [of April] we returned to the
mouth of the Bay of Chesiopic, set up a cross and called the place
Cape Henry," wrote George Percy, son of Earl Percy, who was with
the Virginia colonists in 1607.
4 The Colonial Records of North Carolina (hereafter cited as Col.
Rec), I, 21.
5 Ibid., I, 20.
Qlbid., I, pp. 32, 113-14.
7 Ibid., I, 187-205; The State Records of North Carolina (hereafter
cited as St. Rec), Vol. XXV, pp. 123-136.
8 Col. Rec, I, 202-203.
9 Ibid., I, pp. xvii-xviii.
io Ibid., I, 202.
ii Ibid., I, 520, 571. New Standard Encyclopedia, Vol. IV, p. 156.
Drane, Dr. Robert B., Colonial Parishes and Church Schools, in
Sketches of Church History in North Carolina, edited by the Rt.
Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire and published by Wm. L. De Rosset,
Jr., p. 167.
12 Col. Rec, I, pp. 572-73. McConnell, Dr. S. D., History of the
American Episcopal Church, pp. 96-98. Protestant Episcopal His-
torical Society Collection, pp. 99-106. Hawks, Francis L., History of
North Carolina, Vol. II, pp. 338-339.
FIRST MINISTERS IN EAST CAROLINA
The first minister to preach in North Carolina is said
to have been William Edmundson, a Quaker, native of
Westmoreland, England, who came to Carolina during the
Spring of 1672 and preached at the house of Henry Phil-
lips, where the town of Hertford is now located. 1
George Fox, also a Quaker, was the second missionary
to visit North Carolina. He went to the western part of
what is now the county of Chowan, as well as to the Per-
quimans and Pasquotank sections. 2
The Quakers were thus the first to send missionaries
into Carolina, and they infused their principles through
northeastern parts of the province. Presbyterians and
members of other denominations also moved to the region
from Virginia and other colonies. 3
Quaker influence was felt from 1694 to 1696 when John
Archdale was Governor of the Carolinas. He was a
Quaker, convert of George Fox. But when Henderson
Walker became Governor, 1699-1703, he did much to help
establish the Church of England and further its cause in
North Carolina. 4
The first Church of England missionary for the Albe-
marle section, sent in 1700 at Dr. Bray's insistence, was
the Rev. Daniel Brett. This was an unfortunate selec-
tion, as were some of the later missionary choices. He
remained only a few months. 5
As early as 1669 there had been instituted in England
a society "for the promotion of Christian knowledge."
For various reasons it failed to function well. A second
organization, to supply clergymen for the American colo-
nies, was started by Dr. Bray, desirous to improve re-
ligious conditions in the colonies.
On June 16, 1701, his society, as a voluntary organiza-
tion among churchmen in England, was chartered by
King William III of England as the "Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." 6
FIRST MINISTERS IN EAST CAROLINA 13
This association did more towards the early Christian-
izing of East Carolina than probably any other one factor.
However, the group was greatly handicapped in its worthy
efforts by the general indifference found on both sides of
the ocean and the immense distances that had to be
The first public library in Carolina was started at Bath,
the oldest town, with books sent by Dr. Bray. 7 Books
were later sent to many other towns of the province. And
the Rt. Rev. Henry Compton, Lord Bishop of London
from 1675 to 1714, obtained from the Crown a promise of
a bounty of 20 pounds for every minister or scholar who
would agree to come to America. 8
i Cheshire, J. B., Jr., Fragments of Colonial Church History,
2 Col. Rec, I, xviii, 226-27, 572. Journals of Edmundson and Fox.
3 Vass, the Rev. L. C, History of the Presbyterian Church in New
Bern, N. C, pp. 18-21.
4 Battle, Kemp P., The Colonial Laymen of the Church of England
in North Carolina, published in Cheshire's Sketches, pp. 95-96.
5 Col. Rec, I, 572.
6 Cheshire, The Church in the Province of North Carolina, op cit.,
pp. 51-52; New Standard Encyclopedia, IV, 156. McConnell, op cit.,
pp. 98-99. Hawks, op. cit., II, 340.
7 Col. Rec, I, 572.
8 Ibid., I, 600-1. Hawks, II, 339.
ESTABLISHMENT OF CHURCH
In the Fall of 1701 Governor Henderson Walker had
the "Assembly" pass an act making the Church of Eng-
land the established church. 1
Parishes were laid out in this province. Craven, named
for William, Earl of Craven, one of the original Lords
Proprietors, was a precinct in St. Thomas parish. Pro-
vision was made for erection of churches and appointment
of vestries. For payment of 30 pounds for each minister's
salary, a poll tax was laid on every tithable person. 2
Quakers, Presbyterians and other denomination mem-
bers in the province objected strenuously to the bill, and
appealed to England. They asserted that, though re-
ligious toleration had been definitely promised, there
could be no real religious freedom and liberty of con-
science for all, if they were forced thus to help support
the Church of England. 3
The measure was later vetoed by the Lords Proprietors,
not because of these objections filed by colonists but be-
cause of the opinion that the bill was "inadequate," 30
pounds not being considered enough for preachers. 4
On December 15, 1701, however, the vestry of Chowan
precinct appointed under the act made arrangements for
a church reader and a house of worship. 5 This church,
reported well under way October 13, 1702, near Edenton, 6
was the first to be erected in North Carolina. 7 It is said
to have been located on land later included in the Hayes
An entry dated June 30, 1702, in the Vestry Book of
St. Paul's parish, Chowan precinct, refers to a March act
of the Assembly empowering each vestry to provide a
standard of weights and measures and transact other
business. 9 That vestry also met on October 13 of that
year and at other times. 10
Governor Henderson wrote to the Bishop of London
October 21, 1703, requesting that a "worthy good man"
ESTABLISHMENT OF CHURCH 15
be sent to Carolina to regain the flock and establish it in
the Christian profession. 11 He severely criticized the be-
havior of the Rev. Daniel Brett, said to be "the first
minister sent to us." 12
The first missionary sent to North Carolina by the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts
was the Rev. John Blair. 13 He left England late in 1703. 14
His mission in this New World was destined to encounter
many difficulties and handicaps, as did other early Colonial
In a letter to officials of the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel he reported three chief precincts in this
province, with three small churches and three glebes. 15
Craven was not counted as one of the main precincts. He
said that a reader was engaged at a small salary in each
of the three, for morning and evening prayers and two
sermons every Sunday. 16
Four "sorts of people" were described: Quakers,
"powerful enemies to church government" ; those with no
religion who would be Quakers if it did not compel them to
live moral lives; a denomination something like Presby-
terianism ; and those really zealous for the interest of the
church. This fourth group was said to be fewest in num-
ber but composed of the "better sort of people." 17
Blair almost starved in the Carolina wildernesses. He
worked hard and traveled far, but could accomplish little.
While he was returning to England for aid after a few
months, his vessel was captured and he was held a pris-
oner of war in France for nine weeks. 18
During late 1704 or early 1705 a Vestry Act was passed
by the North Carolina Assembly, providing for twelve
vestrymen in each precinct. These were given the power
to build churches and raise money, displace and disap-
prove ministers, for whom they were to pay 30 pounds
per annum. 19 This measure was evidently later repealed.
Members of the House of Lords of the British Parlia-
ment notified Queen Anne March 13, 1705, of a petition
received from Joseph Boone, merchant, and other Caro-
lina residents objecting to two Assembly acts: appoint-
ment of a commission of twenty laymen to remove rectors
16 CROWN OF LIFE
only by delivery of written notices and provision that no
man might be chosen to the House of Commons of the
Assembly if he had not received the Church of England
sacrament within a year before his election unless he
would swear he was of the Church of England profes-
sion. 20 The Lords declared that such measures were not
warranted by the charter granted to the Carolina Lords
Proprietors.- 1 Accordingly, Queen Anne pronounced them
null and void.- 2
At a council meeting held in Chowan December 3, 1705,
Bath County, reported to be growing, was divided into
three precincts: 23 Pampticough, north of the Pamlico
river beginning at Moline's Creek and extending westerly
to the head of the river; Wickham, from Moline's Creek
to Matchepungo Bluif; and Archdale, the south side of
the river, including Neuse. Each precinct was allowed
two Assembly members. Pampticough soon passed out
of existence. In 1712 Wickham became Hyde, and Arch-
dale became Beaufort.
The second and third missionaries sent to North Caro-
lina for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in
Foreign Parts were the Rev. James Adams and the Rev.
William Gordon. They arrived in April, 1708. 24 Both
were worthy Christian leaders.
At that time there were four precincts in the Albemarle
Sound section, 25 and both ministers went to that area:
Gordon, to Chowan and Perquimans ; 26 Adams, to Pasquo-
tank and Currituck. 27
In 1709 Gordon wrote of his section: "The people, in-
deed, are ignorant, there being few that can read, and
fewer write, even of their Justices of Peace and vestry-
men." 25 Bath was said to be the only town, with twelve
houses but no church though land had been laid out for
a glebe. 29 Gordon returned to England after a compara-
tively short but satisfactory stay in America. 30
Adams was called "exemplary" in a letter written
August 25, 1710, by church wardens and vestrymen of
"Caratuck" to the S. P. G. officials to thank them for
sending the minister to that region. He was reported to
have been there for two years and five months, and was
ESTABLISHMENT OF CHURCH 17
then planning to return to England. 31 A letter dated the
next day was sent by the "Pascotank" vestry, asking for
a continuance of Adams' work. 32
Adams himself wrote, "I have suffered a world of
misery and trouble, both in body and mind." 33 He pre-
pared to leave for England but died in 1710 just before
his scheduled departure. 34
The Rev. John Urmstone was fourth on the list of
S. P. G. missionaries to North Carolina. In 1711 he came
to Chowan. Colonial Records contain numerous letters
from him to his superiors, complaining bitterly of the
land, vestries and lack of money. 35 The noted divine and
historian, Dr. F. L. Hawks, wrote later that Urmstone,
weak and vacillating, "did more to retard the spread of
Christianity and the growth of the Church of England in
Carolina than any and all other causes combined." 36
Fifth came the Rev. Giles Rainsford, 37 whose health
failed after a few months. He is said to have been
alarmed by Indian hostilities and to have moved soon to
i Col. Rec, I, 543, 572.
2 Ibid.. 598, 601. Cheshire, Sketches, p. 52.
3 Col. Rec, I, 527, 709, 802. Cheshire, p. 54.
4 Col. Rec, I, 601. Hawks, II, 343, 357.
5 Col. Rec, I, 543-545.
eiMd., I, 558-61.
7 Cheshire, op. cit.. 119.
8 Graham, John Washington, History of St. Paul's Episcopal
Church, p. 4.
9 Col. Rec, I, 558.
io Col. Rec, I, 558, 560. 568, et als.
iiZfeic?., pp. 572-73.
13 Ibid., 597, 600.
i~ Ibid., 601-2.
izibid., 600-3. Hawks, II, 344.
19 Col. Rec, I, 680, 682, 689, 709.
20 Ibid., pp. 634-40.
21 Ibid., 636.
22 ibid.. 643, 673.
23 Ibid.. 629.
26 Ibid.. 684-85, 689.
27 Ibid., 681.
ftORTi LIBRARY CO*,
18 CROWN OF LIFE
29 Ibid., 715.
soma., 684-85, 701.
31 I&uL, 728-29.
S2 Ibid., 730.
33 Ibid., 734.
34/6irl., I, 884; II, 75. Hawks, II, 350-51.
35 Col. Rec, I, 763-64, 774, 849, 850, etc.
36 Hawks, II, 353.
37 Col. Rec, I, 858-60.
38 Hawks, II, 353. Col. Rec, II, 17, 128.
CRAVEN COUNTY SETTLED
The first white settlers in this section were from Vir-
ginia, New Jersey and New England. Some were hun-
ters. Others sought a living from the soil. Many desired
religious freedom. There were Quakers, Calvinists, Puri-
tans, French Huguenots and other "dissenters," who had
come to America from religious persecutions abroad.
Although there were a number of earlier smaller groups
or individuals, the first organized settlement in Craven
County dates back to 1707, when the Rev. Claude Phillippe
de Richebourg brought Palatine Protestants to the Trent
River. This is said to have been the first Presbyterian
minister, as well as the first organized Presbyterian con-
gregation, in North Carolina. 1 Some of the colonists were
Lutherans, others Calvinists, French Huguenots, or Re-
formed Church members.
These exceptionally fine citizens moved to this region
from Virginia, where in search of religious liberty they
had gone in 1690, with the encouragement of King Wil-
liam of England, first locating at Manakin Town above
the James River falls. Not satisfied with the land in Vir-
ginia, they had decided to move farther south.
Pious and zealous, talented and hard-working, these
settlers were unusually worthy. They held religious ser-
vices regularly. In an effort to promote silk culture, they
had eggs shipped here, but the eggs hatched on the vessel
and the silk worms died for lack of food. After the
Indian massacres in 1711, the colonists moved still farther
south, settling on the Santee River in South Carolina. 2
First organized colony direct from Europe to North
Carolina, Swiss and German Palatines settled on the site
of this town in 1710. They were stout Protestants. The
day before the first group sailed from Gravesend on the
Thames River in England in January, 1710, religious
services were held and an appropriate farewell sermon
20 CROWN OF LIFE
was preached by the Rev. Mr. Cesar, a German Reformed
minister of London. 3
Baron Christopher deGraffenried, 49, Swiss nobleman,
popular at European courts, who organized the colonists,
was present for the farewell service. 4 He followed later
in the year with his Swiss settlers, 3 changing the name of
the Indian village, "Chattawka," on the Neuse and Trent
Rivers in East Carolina, to honor his native Bern, Switzer-
Henry Hoeger, a Reformed minister, accompanied the
local settlers. He was 75 years old, sober and honest.
Jacob Christofle Zollikofer, of St. Gall, Switzerland, was
instructed to go around Europe to try to get contributions
for the building of a church and for the sending over here
of a young German preacher as an assistant to Hoeger.
He was requested to have the young minister ordained
in England by the Bishop of London and to send a liturgy
of the Church of England translated in high Dutch. The
outcome of these assignments is not definitely known. 7
The colonists had been able to bring little furniture to
their new home, but they did probably bring their Bibles,
hymn books and religious volumes. Religious services
must have been held often, probably at private homes.
As early as 1703, the Rev. Josuah Kocherthal, a
Lutheran clergyman at Landau in the German Palatinate,
driven to despair over the religious persecutions and hor-
rible sufferings which his followers had endured after
invasions of French armies, had gone to England to in-
vestigate the expediency of an emigration across the
Upon his return home, he published a book on the pro-
vince of Carolina, giving glowing descriptions of its
climate and fertility. Thousands of downtrodden persons
envisioned a land of plenty and promise, with liberty and
peace of soul. 8
Encouraged by the English government, which was as
eager to get foreign Protestant colonists for the New
World as it was to keep its own people at home, the
greatest migrations since the Crusades took place. In a
few months between 10,000 and 15,000 persons flocked to
CRAVEN COUNTY SETTLED 21
London, begging to be transported across the ocean.
Among these were many of the future settlers of New
For his colony, deGraffenried carefully chose young and
able-bodied men, representing almost every trade and
craft then prevalent. 10 No colony in America had such a
highly selective personnel.
DeGraffenried was authorized by the Bishop of London
to perform marriage ceremonies and baptisms. 11 Though
most of the settlers were of the Calvinistic and Lutheran
faiths, they signified a desire to be affiliated with the
Church of England. On April 20, 1711, deGraffenried
wrote the Bishop of London:
"Humbly request your lordship to accept of me and my
people, and receive us into your Church under your Lord-
ship's patronage, and we shall esteem ourselves happy
sons of a better stock ; and I hope we shall always behave
ourselves as becomes members of the Church of England,
and dutiful children of so pious and indulgent a father as
your Lordship is to all under your care ; in all obedience,
craving your lordship's blessing to me and my country-
men here." 12
The Bishop of London wrote the next January 12 to
Secretary Fulham of the Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel: "As to the letter of Baron deGraffenried,
whereby you may perceive that they are all ready to con-
form to the Church of England; if the Society will be
pleased to allow a stipend for a chaplain to read Common
Prayers in High Dutch, I will endeavor to provide so soon
as I have their resolution, which I would willingly hear
so soon as possible, that I may send him over with Mr.
A colony of Welsh Quakers, including Thomas Lovick,
John Lovick and other leaders who afterwards became
prominent, settled in 1710 below New Bern on Clubfoot
and Hancock Creeks on the south side of the Neuse
River. 14 German immigrants arrived in 1732, but moved
up Trent River and settled in what is now Jones County,
then part of Craven. 15
22 CROWN OF LIFE
Thus there were English, French, Germans, Swiss,
Welsh, Scotch-Irish and other nationalities in this area
early in the 18th century. Many religious faiths were
represented — Church of England, Calvinists, Lutherans,
Reformed, Quakers, Presbyterians, and a few Catholics.
Methodists and Baptists also came early to the section.
i Vass, op. cit., pp. 49-53. Ashe, Samuel A., History of North
Carolina, Vol. I, p. 161.
2 Lawson, John, History of Carolina, pp. 28-30, 141, 187. Hawks,
3 DeGraffenried, Baron Christopher, The Landgrave's Own Story,
published in deGraffenried, Thomas P., History of the deGraffenried
Family, p. 77. Vass, 57.
4 DeGraffenried, op. cit., pp. 76-77.
5 Ibid., 78.
a Ibid., 77.
7 Dubbs, Prof. Joseph H., D. D., Historic Manual of the Reformed
Church. Perry's Historic Collections. Vass, 60.
s Todd, Vincent H., Ph.D., Christoph von Grafjenried's Account of
the Founding of New Bern, pp. 13-14, 17, 22.
9 DeGraffenried, pp. 75-76.
io Ibid., 76.
ii Todd, op. cit., 377.
12 Col. Rec, I, 756.
13 Ibid., 831.
14 Vass, op. cit., 70.
is Vass, 71.
Establishment of the Church of England in North Caro-
lina was recognized by Act of the Assembly in 1711, with
acceptance of the laws of England as "the laws of this
government so far as they are compatible with our way
of living." A fine of a hundred pounds was provided for
vestrymen refusing to qualify under the English laws. 1
The Rev. Mr. Urmstone wrote July 7 of that year that
the Assembly Act provided for the worship of God and
the establishment of the church. Vestries of twelve men
in every precinct or parish were called to meet in six
weeks to choose church wardens, to give them power to
buy glebes, to build churches and to engage clergymen. 2
But, it was difficult to get ministers. Miles Gale wrote
in 1714 to the Secretary of the Society for the Propaga-
tion of the Gospel :
"Your letters received for his Excellency, the present
Governor Eden, and my Eldest Son, Christopher Gale . . .
I have made all the Enquiry in my power after some to
go as missionaries, they like the terms but dread y voyage
and the heat of the climate. I heartily wish & hope Re-
ligion may be taken care for in that Heathenish Country." 3
An Act for Observing the Lord's Day was passed in
1715 and remained in force until its repeal in April, 1741. 4
Three holidays were again decreed: January 30, when
King Charles I was "barberously murthered;" May 29,
the Restoration anniversary; and September 22, the
Indian massacre anniversary. 5
This act forbade cursing, swearing and drunkenness on
the Sabbath. Ministers were directed to read the law
publicly twice a year, on the first Sundays in March and
October. If no minister was in the section, the Clerk was
ordered to read it at precinct court in April and October. 6
Another 1715 law permitted Quakers to make a solemn
affirmation rather than take an oath. 7 This was again
decreed Oct. 16, 1749. 8 But, because of their failure to
24 CROWN OF LIFE
take oaths, despite the fact that liberty of conscience was
promised, Quakers were long considered ineligible to hold
office and were not allowed to serve on juries or give evi-
dence in criminal cases.
Also passed in 1715 was an act to the effect that no
minister of the Church of England should be obliged to
enlist in the militia. 9 Established Church clergymen were
exempt from military duty during practically the entire
Colonial period in North Carolina, but it was not until
passage of a temporary six-months' act in 1760 and a
more permanent act in 1764 that such provision was made
for Presbyterian ministers, "regularly called to any con-
gregation." 10 No mention was then made of other de-
In 1770 it was recorded that for five years Quakers had
been released from attendance on general or private mus-
ters, provided they were regularly listed and would serve
in the regular militia in case of insurrection or invasion.
On February 23, 1771, Perquimans County Quakers wrote
to thank the Assembly for the act passed at the pre-
ceding session exempting them from militia duty and
military training. 11
i Col. Rec, I, pp. 789-90.
2 Ibid., 769.
3IMd.. Vol. II, 133.
4 St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 3-6.
5 Ibid., 3.
Glbid., pp. 4-6.
' Hid., 11.
8 Ibid. Col. Rec, II, 884.
9 St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 29-30.
ii Col. Rec, IX, pp. 176-77.
LOCAL PARISH DESIGNATED
Craven parish was one of nine parishes provided for
in 1715; accordingly, the history of Christ Church may
be said to have been started in that year.
The bill was entitled "An Act for establishing the
church and appointing select vestrys," this "Province of
North Carolina being a member of the Kingdom of Great
Britain and the Church of England being appointed by
the charter from the Crown to be the only Established
church to have Publick encouragement in it." 1
Under the act the province was divided into nine
parishes, as follows: Chowan precinct, two; Pasquotank
precinct, two; Perquimans, Currituck and Hyde, each
constituting one parish; the remaining part of the
Pamplico River and its branches in Beaufort precinct, St.
Thomas parish ; and "Nuse river & the Branches thereof,
by the name of Craven parish, to which all the Southern
settlements shall be accounted a part until further
The twelve men named as vestrymen for Craven parish
were Col. Wm. Brice, Maj. Wm. Hancock, Mr. Jno. Nelson,
Mr. Jno. Slocumb, Capt. Rich'd Graves, Mr. Dan'l Mc-
Farlin, Mr. Jno. Smith, Mr. Jno. Mackey, Mr. Thos.
Smith, Mr. Jos. Bell, Mr. Martin Frank and Mr. Jaco(b)
Vestrymen named for the various parishes under this
act were directed to meet at their respective churches,
chapels or courthouses within forty days after publication
of the law. Should any vestryman fail to meet as sum-
moned by the marshal or deputy, if not "a known &
Publick Dissenter from the Church of England," he was
to be fined three pounds. Should any marshal fail to call
the vestrymen, he was to be subject to fine of twenty
All the vestrymen were ordered to qualify before the
following Easter Monday. Others to be appointed later
26 CROWN OF LIFE
were to qualify within a month. They were to take an
oath and make the following declaration before a Justice
of the Peace :
"I, A. B., do declare that it is not lawfull upon any
pretence whatever to take up Arms against the King &
that I will not apugne the Liturgy of the Church of Eng-
land as it is by Law established."
After qualifying, the vestrymen were expected to
choose two of their number to serve for one year as
church wardens; then two other vestrymen were to be
selected for this service the following year; and so on
under this rotation in office until all vestrymen had served
for a year as wardens.
If a vestryman failed to serve as church warden, he was
to forfeit thirty shillings. Should any vestryman be ab-
sent from a regular meeting without "a lawful cause,"
he was to be taxed ten shillings.
These vestries were empowered to purchase land for the
erection of churches, raising money from a poll tax of
not over five shillings a year. They were also to name
ministers at not less than fifty pounds per year.
The ministers were given the right to marry couples,
but could not receive more than five shillings for each
ceremony. Magistrates were allowed to marry persons
"in such parishes where no minister shall be resident."
A man and woman desiring to be married could take three
or four neighbors or witnesses to the Governor or a Coun-
cil member and obtain a marriage certificate. Previously,
for lack of clergymen, marriage had been only a civil con-
tract in the province.
This extensive Vestry Act, signed by Gov. Charles
Eden, N. Chevin, C. Gale, Fran. Foster, T. Knight and
Speaker Edw. Moseley, remained in force until April,
1741, when it was superseded by another bill establishing
the church and a special marriage act. It was substan-
tially re-enacted in October, 1749. 2
In 1720 it was reported that the persons appointed in
1715 to serve as vestrymen for the southwest parish of
Chowan and Craven precinct had not qualified, so it was
enacted by "His Excellency the Palatine and the rest of
LOCAL PARISH DESIGNATED 27
the true and absolute Lords Proprietors of Carolina,"
with the consent of the General Assembly, that the mar-
shal or deputy summon the vestrymen to qualify within
forty days, with power to fill vacancies. 3
Three years later, on November 23, 1723, when New
Bern was incorporated and laid out in a township, there
was a clause in the charter providing a site for a church. 4
Despite the Indian wars and other difficulties, the town
had by then grown considerably.
Beaufort was also incorporated as a town about the
same time, and St. John's parish was established there,
being divided from Craven into Carteret precinct. Ves-
trymen named were Christopher Gale, Esq., Joseph Bell,
Jno. Shaw, Jno. Nelson, Richard Whitehurst, Richard
Williamson, Richard Rustell, Jno. Shackleford, Thomas
Merriday, Enoch Ward, Joseph Fulford and Charles Cog-
No Episcopal minister was serving in any of the eleven
parishes of North Carolina in 1727 or 1728, it was re-
ported in the Journal of Proceedings for setting the
boundaries between North Carolina and Virginia. 6
On this Boundary Commission there was a Virginia
chaplain, the Rev. Peter Fontaine, an Episcopal minister,
appointed partly in order that people on the Carolina
frontiers might get themselves and their children bap-
Colonel William Byrd, a boundary commissioner, wrote
that when the chaplain "rubbed us up with a seasonable
sermon, this was quite a new thing to our brethren of
North Carolina, who live in a climate where no clergyman
can breathe, any more than spiders in Ireland." 8
Transfer of the province from the control of the Lords
Proprietors to the Crown in 1729 ended Proprietary gov-
ernment but brought little change in conditions. Each
parish had the right to elect its vestrymen. The Craven
vestry and church wardens could raise money by a poll
tax not exceeding five shillings in currency for the pur-
pose of paying preachers and aiding the poor. 9
i Col. Rec, II, pp. 207-13. St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 6-10.
2 St. Rec, XXIII, 6.
28 CROWN OF LIFE
3 Ibid., XXV, pp. 166-68.
5 Ibid., 206-9.
6 Col. Rec, II, pp. 750-57; 776-815.
7 Vass, op. cit., 15.
8 Byrd, William, Histories of Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and
North Carolina, edited by Dr. William K. Boyd, p. 72.
9 Col. Rec, V, 86.
FREEDOM OF WORSHIP AGAIN DECREED
Instructions drafted December 14, 1730, by King George
II for Capt. George Burrington, named as Royal Governor
of North Carolina, contained among the 117 different
sections 1 the order that there was to be "liberty of con-
science to all persons (except papists)." 2 These directions
were repeated later for Royal Governor Gabriel Johnston, 3
who did much to promote the power and influence of the
church in the province.
Burrington was told to "take especial care that God
Almighty be devoutly and duly served throughout your
Government, the Book of Common Prayer as by law es-
tablished read each Sunday and Holiday and the blessed
sacrament administered according to the rites of the
Church of England." 4
More churches and rectories should be built in North
Carolina, 5 the King admonished, calling attention to the
rule that "ministers must have certificates from the Right
Reverend Father in God the Lord Bishop of London of his
being conformable to the doctrine and discipline of the
Church of England." 6 All schoolmasters also were to be
licensed by the Bishop of London. 7
Governor Burrington wrote July 2, 1731, to one of the
Principal Secretaries of State: "This Country has no
Orthodox Minister legally settled, those that formerly
have been here generally proved so very bad that they
gave people offence by their vicious Lives." 8
The next March he wrote the Bishop of London: "I
was not able to Prevail with the Last assembly to make
necessary provision to subsist a convenient number of
clergymen but have a very good expectation the ensuing
one will come into the measures I proposed. Dr. Marsden
continues in the South Part of this Province. He some-
times Preaches, Baptizeth children and marrieth them
30 CROWN OF LIFE ■
"The Rev. Mr. Bevil Granville, nephew to the Lord
Lansdown, is also here. He was going to Maryland but
we have hopes he will continue with us if your Lordship
will procure the usual allowance from the Society. These
are all the ministers of the Church of England now in
this government : there is one Presbyterian minister who
has a Mixed audience ; and there are four meeting houses
"Mr. John Boyd (the gentleman who delivers this
letter) was bred at the University of Glasgow ; has prac-
tised Physic in the Colony of Virginia seven years, is now
desirous to take orders, several Gentlemen of my acquain-
tance in this Country give him the Charack of a worthy,
conscientious man, well qualified for the ministry, they
are desirous of having him for their Pastor, and earnestly
requested me to recommend Mr. Boyd to my Lord Bishop
for orders, a certificate, and an allowance from the
Society, the Better to support him, if your Lordship thinks
him deserving; as I believe Mr. Boyd's designs are purely
to do good in takeing the ministry upon him and not out
of any view of gain, I humbly recommend him to your
Lordship for Orders and a certificate." 9
Boyd wrote that year to the Society for the Propaga-
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts as follows about
"There is no minister residing of the Church of Eng-
land in any part of that government, for want of which
many of the people are drawn away by Presbyterian
anabaptists or other Dissenting Teachers, many of their
children unbaptised & the administration of the Sacra-
ment of the Lord's Supper wholly neglected." 10
From Edenton Granville wrote May 6, 1732, that he
had baptized 1,000 persons. 11 That month Governor Bur-
rington also reported that "Richard Marsden officiates
Gratis at a place called Onslow." 12 Also in the Cape Fear
region a French clergyman, the Rev. John LaPierre, was
said to be engaged. 13 And, Governor Burrington re-
ported, "a clergyman beneficed in Virginia preaches once
a month in a precinct named Bertie." 14
FREEDOM OF WORSHIP AGAIN DECREED 31
A later report of the Royal Governor in 1733 to the
Lords of Trade and Plantations stated : "There is not one
clergyman of the Church of England regularly setled in
this Government. The former missionarys were so little
approved of, that the Inhabitants seem very indifferent,
whither any more come to them.
"Some Presbyterians, or rather Independent Ministers
from New England, have got congregations . . . The
Quakers in this Government are considerable for their
numbers and substance; the regularity of their lives,
hospitality to strangers, and kind offices to new settlers
induceing many to be of their persuasion." 15
The Rev. George Whitefield, (1714-1770), the famous
Methodist divine, "unequalled prince of pulpit orators,"
arrived in New Bern on Christmas eve in 1739. On
Christmas day he preached in the courthouse. An ac-
count of his visit related that "Most of his congregation
was melted to tears. Here he was grieved to see the
minister encouraging dancing, and to find a dancing-
master in every little town. 'Such sinful entertainments,'
he said, 'enervate the minds of the people, and insensibly
lead them into effeminacy and ruin'." 16 Mr. Whitefield re-
turned to New Bern again in November, 1764, 17 and later
in 1765. 18
i coi. :
it Col. :
UNION OF CHURCH AND STATE
Although it is impossible to get a complete story of
religious history here during the Colonial era, court
records prove the close union of church and state. In
numerous instances may be found indications of a kindly
Christian spirit towards the weak and unprotected.
An entry dated March 20, 1740, in the minute book of
the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, reads : "Mr.
Philip Trapnell appears and delivers up an infant boy
named Joseph Waters to this court. Ordered that the
constable next in that neighborhood take the said boy
into his custody and bring him to the vestry next Easter
In the same month it was recorded : "An infant about
nine years of age is brought into court. The court
thought fit to bind her out to William Carlton till she come
to the age of 16 years and the said Carlton gives securities
for his good performance during the time she shall re-
main with him as follows : that he is to do his endeavor to
teach her or cause her to be taught to read the Bible."
Care of orphans is also shown in a record of Septem-
ber, 1742: "Ordered that every master or mistress of
orphans within this County bring a certificate from a
neighboring justice to satisfy the court of their welfare."
Such quality of mercy is not always evident. On Sep-
tember 19, 1740, there was made the entry : "Mary Magee
appears in court. Ordered that she be stripped her
clothes to her waste and receive 12 lashes on her bare back
at the public whipping post."
Measures taken against "dissenters" from the estab-
lished church were based on the belief that those who re-
fused to worship under the prescribed forms were wicked.
A bill for liberty of conscience failed to pass in 1740. 2
A local record of June 20, 1740, stated: "A motion
and petition made by a sect of decenting people called
Baptists that they may have the liberty to build a house
First Local Church — 1750
UNION OF CHURCH AND STATE 33
of worship and being duly examined by the court ac-
knowledged to all the articles of the Church of England
except part of the 27 and 36 they desiring to preach
among themselves. Referred." Two words have a line
drawn through them, but they seem to be, "but rejected."
Later that year on September 22 the record shows:
"The following dissenting Protestants appeared, viz.:
John Brooks, John James, Robert Spring, Nicholas Pure-
foy, and Thos. Fulcher came into court and took the oath
of allegiance and supremacy and subscribed the test the
39 articles of Religion being distinctly read to them the
following of which they dissented from to wit: the 26th
and the latter part of the 27th."
However, the Craven Court of Pleas and Quarter Ses-
sions in December of the same year granted a "Petition of
Palintines or High Germans praying that they may have
Liberty to build a Chaple on Trent for a place of wor-
Progress along many lines was made in New Bern dur-
ing the next decade. In 1749 James Davis came from
Virginia, through subsidy of the General Assembly, 4 and
set up here the first printing press in North Carolina,
publishing the first newspaper, first pamphlet and first
book of the province. 5
The General Assembly met here in 1738 6 and later in
twenty different years, and the Council even more fre-
quently, until the town was chosen in 1765 as the logical
place for the provincial capital. 7 The next year a bill was
passed to erect Tryon's Palace here as the seat of govern-
ment for the province. 8
i Taken from minutes of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions
in the vault of the Clerk of Craven County Superior Court, New
Bern, this entry and others quoted in this chapter, unless otherwise
credited, may be found also in an article, "The Early History of
Craven County," by the late Congressman Samuel M. Brinson, in
Volume X, The North Carolina Booklet, published by the North
Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution.
2 Col. Rec, IV, 514.
3 Vass, op. cit., pp. 60-61.
4 Col. Rec, IV, pp. 976-77, 984, 1023.
o Weeks, Stephen B., The Press of North Carolina in the Eigh-
6 Col. Rec, IV, 355.
T Ibid., VII, 2.
8 St. Rec, XXIII, 664-65.
NEW CHURCH ACTS
In 1741 another act was passed establishing the church
in this province. 1 Sixteen parishes were named, each
privileged to levy a poll tax for support. Among the
parishes is named, for possibly the first public time,
Christ-Church Parish in Craven County.
Inhabitants of each parish were authorized to meet on
the first Monday after the act and on Easter Mondays
thereafter every two years at the church or courthouse
to elect twelve freeholders as vestrymen for two-year
These vestrymen were ordered to qualify, after being
summoned by constables, and take this oath: "I, A. B.,
do declare I will not oppose the Liturgy of the Church of
England, as it is by law established."
Two church wardens were to be selected by the vestry.
If they refused to serve, they had to pay forty shillings
proclamation money. But they were not required to serve
more than one year without their consent. The wardens
were allowed three per cent of the church taxes.
The vestry could engage a minister, buy land for a
church and raise money for the poor. If a rector was
believed to be immoral, he could be deprived of his salary'
but he was permitted to bring suit for it in court.
This act was later repealed, and another was passed for
the clergy in December, 1758. 2
A special marriage act was also passed in 1741. 3 This
limited the right to perform marriage ceremonies to min-
isters of the Church of England. In the absence of the
rector, the matrimonial ceremony might be performed by
a magistrate. But whether or not the rector acted in this
capacity, he was to receive the fee, "if he do not neglect
or refuse to do the service." 4
Presbyterians did not consider themselves bound by
this act, so they joined couples in wedding ceremonies
conducted by their ministers without license or publica-
NEW CHURCH ACTS 35
tion. It was not until 1766 that these marriages were
legalized. Then it was made lawful for a Presbyterian
preacher to marry a couple by license, but even then the
Church of England minister was to get the fee unless he
declined to officiate. 5
Much opposition was occasioned by these acts, and in
January, 1771, the law was changed so that Presbyterian
clergymen could marry couples by publication of banns
or license without the payment of the fees to the Church
of England rectors. 6 But the Board of Trade had the
King disallow this change. 7
Hence, it was not until the Revolutionary War and the
adoption of the State Constitution in December, 1776,
that there was no Established Church in North Carolina
and the ministers of other denominations were legally
permitted to perform wedding ceremonies and receive
fees for the rites.
i St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 187-191.
2 Ibid., XXV, 364. Col. Rec, V, 1036.
3 St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 158-161.
4 Ibid., 160.
5 Ibid., 674. Col. Rec, VII, pp. 432-33.
6 Col. Rec, VIII, 384, 479. St. Rec, XXIII, 831.
7 Col. Rec, IX, 7.
FIRST LOCAL CHURCH
Places for religious services, probably at private homes,
were undoubtedly designated by the earliest settlers in
and around New Bern, since so many of them had moved
to the section for religious reasons. As already men-
tioned, a chapel had been authorized up Trent River.
There may have been one or more in New Bern.
Col. Thomas Pollock, a "stalwart churchman" 1 and a
Proprietary Governor of North Carolina, who held mort-
gages on New Bern property for money he had advanced
to deGraffenried, 2 wrote his New Bern agent that he had
given a lot here for a church. 3 Title was confirmed by
the Act for the Better Settling the Town of New Bern,
passed by the General Assembly in 1723. That act speci-
fically mentioned "proper allotments for a Church, Court-
house, and Market-place." 4
When Royal government of Carolina was initiated in
1729 there were two or three rude buildings used as
churches, perhaps including one here, though there is no
proof for this, and a few Quaker meeting houses in dif-
ferent parts of the province. At that time there was no
regular clergyman in the territory.
About 1734 the Rev. John LaPierre held a few services
in New Bern, and it may be that his work stirred senti-
ment for a commodious church building here. The next
year he moved here and resided here for probably twenty
years. He preached at various places of the region. 5
St. Thomas Church, still standing at Bath, oldest town
in North Carolina, dates back to 1734, now the oldest
church building in the State. This was antedated by a
house of worship which disappeared years ago. The
parish was organized there with a vestry in 1701. 7
Started in 1736 was the present church of St. Paul's
parish, Edenton, but it was not completed for many years.
Service was held there in 1760, and the interior wood-
work was finished in 1774. 8 The parish of Chowan there
FIRST LOCAL CHURCH 37
had been organized at a vestry meeting held Dec. 15,
1701, 9 and since then has been known as St. Paul's parish
in that third oldest town of North Carolina. The graves
of three governors, Henderson Walker, Charles Eden and
Thomas Pollock, are in that historic churchyard.
Inspired very likely by these examples of church build-
ing in Bath and Edenton, the Craven parish vestrymen in
1739 laid a tax on all tithables here for a new church.
Commissioners were appointed for the purpose. 10
These commissioners are reported in Colonial Records
to have made 100,000 bricks for the local house of wor-
ship. 11 The brick are believed to have been made from
clay in a hill near this town, where John Lawson, first
surveyor-general of the colony, had camped years pre-
viously. Mrs. Richard S. Mason, wife of a later rector of
the church, used to relate how her mother had boasted
about helping with this task of brick manufacture. 12 The
brick-making hole is said to have been long visible along
New South Front Street towards the Pembroke road. 13
Besides the cost of making these bricks, the vestry in-
curred other expenses, so the legal tax of five shilling was
found to be insufficient to carry on their work. 14 An act
passed by the Assembly on August 21, 1740, enabled the
commissioners to proceed with their work on the church
by permitting them to levy a special tax for the purpose.
The act also provided "for the better regulation of the
said town." 15
The extra tax sanctioned for New Bern permitted col-
lection of one shilling, six pence, proclamation money, for
two years. It was to be paid yearly, such commodities
being acceptable, as "Pork, good and merchantable, dry
salted, per Barrel, 30 shillings proclamation money ; Beef,
dry salted, per Barrel, good and merchantable, 20 shil-
lings ; drest Deer Skins, two shillings and Six Pence per
Pound ; Tallow, four pence per pound ; Bees Wax, Ten
Pence Half Penny per Pound; Rice, per Hundred, Ten
Collections were to be made by "John Bryan, Gentle-
man, he giving Security of 400 pounds, Proclamation
money, to the County Court of Craven." He was to be
38 CROWN OF LIFE
allowed four per cent of the amounts thus obtained. Each
tithable resident not paying the tax was to forfeit four
shillings and costs.
George Roberts, William Wilson, George Bold, William
Herritage and Adam Moore, "Gentlemen," were named as
Commissioners to receive the levy from Bryan.
In this act it was recorded that a lot had been "laid
out" for the church in the 1723 charter, but this site was
considered "insufficient and not so commodious" and "all
the adjacent lots having been taken up," and the "vestry
having taken up four lots, more convenient and com-
modious, for erecting a church, and for a churchyard and
other parish purposes," therefore, "as soon as the said
church shall be fit to celebrate divine service in, the said
four lots shall be saved to the parish." 10
The commissioners were directed to sell at public sale,
after four days' notice, the less desirable property that
had been set aside for the church by Colonel Pollock in
1723 and apply the money on their new church building
at the larger site. 17
These four lots approved for the edifice were on the
north side of Pollock Street between Middle and Craven,
including the present site of Christ Church. Accordingly,
for two centuries the parish has used the same site, cen-
trally situated on one of the most valuable corners in the
business heart of the city.
Another act passed April 4, 1741, pointed out that the
tax had not been enough to finish the New Bern church.
The vestry had been empowered to lay a tax of fifteen
shillings per poll for paying a minister for one year but
the next vestry had not thought it advisable to employ
a minister, so this tax was ordered converted towards the
completion of the church. 18
This act stated that the 100,000 bricks made by the
commissioners for the church were too many for the pur-
pose, so the commission was authorized to sell all the brick
not needed and apply the money on the church structure. 19
Due to the deaths of Wilson, Moore and Roberts, their
places on the commission were taken in April, 1745, by
John Fonveille, Edward Bryan and Christopher Gregory
FIRST LOCAL CHURCH 39
Hobbs. Under the Assembly Act making these appoint-
ments, the commissioners were authorized, if there was
not enough money on hand to complete the church, to levy
another tax "with as much Expedition as possibly may
The act was amended in 1751. Bryan and Hobbs were
then dead, and the appointment of commissioners was
discontinued. The church wardens and vestrymen were
given the power to call the commissioners to account for
the money collected ; and, as some of the inhabitants of
Craven and Johnston counties were said not to have paid
the tax, the vestrymen and wardens were authorized to
issue warrents on their possessions and chattels. 21
It is believed that the church was finished about 1750, 22
but for some time was without a regular rector. It stood
at the corner of Pollock and Middle streets, and traces of
its foundations and walls are still in the churchyard there.
Some years afterwards it was torn down to make way for
a larger structure. The two later churches have been
located farther back on the property.
i Cheshire, Sketches, 100.
3 Ibid., 172. Colonel Thomas Pollock's Letter Book.
4 St. Rec, XXV, 204-5.
5 Cheshire, op. cit., 69.
e Ibid., 209.
T Ibid., 162, 255.
8 Graham, op. cit., 5-8.
9 Col. Rec, I, 543-45.
io St. Rec, XXIII, 141.
12 Whitford, Col. John D., Historical Notes, history of First Baptist
Church and other parts of New Bern, in manuscript form, p. 291.
14 St. Rec, XXIII, 141.
15 Ibid., 141-43. Col. Rec, IV, 549, 572.
16 St. Rec, XXIII, 143.
18 Ibid., 181-82.
20 ibid., 231-32.
21 Ibid., 365-66.
22 Whitford, op. cit., 270.
EAST CAROLINA MISSIONARIES
Although impossible to mention all the missionaries
that worked in Eastern North Carolina during the Colo-
nial era, it is interesting to note that a number were di-
rectly or indirectly connected with the history of New
Bern or this immediate territory.
The Rev. John Garzia acted for some time as a mis-
sionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel
in the Chowan precinct, and "as occasion shall require to
the North East side of River Nuse." 1 In his annual report
dated April 16, 1742, from Bath Town, he told of bap-
tizing 623 children, nine adults and three Negroes in that
section, where he listed 103 communicants and 2,000
"Heathen & Infidels." 2
After Garzia died, the Rev. Clement Hall agreed to
settle near Edenton in 1745. 3 A native of Perquimans
precinct, he had gone to England for ordination in the
ministry. 4 While the Edenton church was being built, he
held services there in the courthouse, at an annual salary
of forty-five pounds. 5 For a time perhaps the only clergy-
man in the province, he also conducted services at four
chapels in the territory that now comprises Gates and
Chowan counties and he visited many other parts of the
eastern portion of North Carolina. 6
On December 27, 1749, he reported that he had
traveled 200 miles through the northern part of his area
that Fall, baptizing 265 white and twenty black children
and four black adults, besides preaching fourteen ser-
Hall wrote May 19, 1752: "I have now thro' God's
gracious assistance and blessing in about 7 or 8 years,
tho' frequently visited with sickness, been enabled to per-
form (for aught I know) as great ministerial duties as
any minister in North America, viz., to journey about
14,000 miles, preach about 675 sermons, baptize about
5,783 white children and 243 black children, 57 white
EAST CAROLINA MISSIONARIES 41
adults and 112 black adults, in all 6,195 persons & some-
times administered the holy sacrament of the Lord's
supper to two or three hundred communicants in one
journey besides churching of women, visiting the sick,
In addition to being one of the most capable and devout
ministers in early Carolina, Hall was the first native
North Carolina author. The main writers in this province
that preceded him were not natives, as John Lawson of
Scotland, John Brickell and the Rev. John Thompson of
The first book known to have been compiled by a native
North Carolinian was published for Hall in 1753 by James
Davis at New Bern: "A Collection of many Christian
Experiences, Sentences and several Places of Scripture
Improved; Also some short and plain Directors and
Prayers for sick Persons ; with serious Advice to Persons
who have been Sick, to be by them perused and put in
Practice as soon as they are recovered; and a Thanks-
giving for Recovery. To which is added, Morning and
Evening Prayers for Families and Children, Directors for
the Lord's Day, and some Cautions against Indecencies in
time of Divine Service, &c. Collected and Composed for
the Spiritual Good of his Parishioners, and others. By
Clement Hall, Missionary to the Honourable Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and Rec-
tor of St. Paul's Parish in North Carolina. Newbern:
Printed by James Davis MDCCLIII." 9
In 1755 Hall lost his house, books and personal property
by fire. He died in 1759. 10 Succeeding him was "Parson"
Daniel Earl, youngest son of an Irish nobleman and a
former officer in the British army, who had come to the
Albemarle section in 1757 to act as curate for the Rev.
Mr. Hall. Besides his religious and political activities,
he taught his people how to cultivate and weave flax and
he established at his home, "Bandon," named for his
native town, the first classical school for boys in North
About the time that Hall went to Edenton, James Moir
was at Brunswick. 12 In 1748 Christopher Bevis asked the
42 CROWN OF LIFE .
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to appoint him
as Moir's successor in the Cape Fear territory. 13 Moir
had moved to Edgecombe parish. 14
The method of electing vestrymen being regarded as
"inconvenient and detrimental," it was decreed in 1751
that vestrymen should be elected by ballot in the same
manner as Assemblymen. Only citizens qualified as
Assemblymen were considered eligible for vestries. 15
A bill to establish the church and erect schools offered
in 1752 failed. 16 Two years later, however, North Caro-
lina was divided into twenty-four parishes. Among these
parishes were Christ Church parish, Craven County; St.
Thomas in Beaufort County; St. Matthew's, Orange
County; St. George, Hyde County; St. John's, Onslow;
St. James, New Hanover; St. Patrick's, Johnston; St.
John's, Carteret ; and St. Philip, Brunswick. 17
The first minister for St. Philip's church at Brunswick
had been the Rev. Mr. LaPierre, a French Huguenot, 18
ordained in 1707, 1!) who had come to America the next
year and to this province from Charleston in 1729. 20 The
first wooden chapel, 24 by 16 feet, was erected there the
next year. The next church there was started in 1751
and was near enough completion for dedication in 1768.
It is now in ruins. Colonial Dames of America make
annual pilgrimages there. 21
Obliged to sell his belongings, Mr. LaPierre is said to
have moved from Brunswick to New Bern in 1735 and to
have remained here until his death here in 1755. 22
Although he is not listed as a regular rector of Christ
Church, it is probable that he held services here and
assisted with church and religious affairs in general. The
General Assembly, in session here in 1749, voted him four
pounds for preaching "several sermons" before that
i Col. Rec, IV, 560.
2 Ibid., 604-5.
3 Ibid., 752-53.
4 Cheshire, Sketches, 70. Graham, op. cit., 8.
5 Col. Rec, IV, 753.
6 Ibid., 924.
T Ibid., 925.
8 Ibid., 1315.
EAST CAROLINA MISSIONARIES 43
9 Copied from old copy of the volume.
10 Cheshire, 71.
il Ibid., 74-75, 168-69. Graham, 9-10.
12 Col. Rec, IV, 606.
13 Ibid., 876-77.
14 Ibid., 872.
15 St. Rec, XXIII, 369-70.
16 Col. Rec, IV, 1337.
17 St. Rec, XXV, 298.
is Col. Rec, III, 342.
19 Ibid., 529.
20 Ibid., 391.
21 Ibid., IV, 754-56, 1299; VII, 789. St. Rec, XXIII, 368.
22 Cheshire, op. cit., 69.
23 Col. Rec, IV, 1024.
GIFTS FROM KING GEORGE
After the church in New Bern had been completed
about the year 1750, Christ Church vestrymen tried to
get a rector. Their efforts along this line failed at first, as
there were few ministers in the New World. So, in 1752,
they wrote to England, probably to the Bishop of London,
asking aid in their endeavor to obtain a regular rector. 1
Even before the arrival of the rector that this appeal
drew here, it was perhaps in response to this letter, with
its news of the new local church, that King George II had
a special silver communion service made for the parish in
1752 and sent it to New Bern as a royal gift, presented
through John Council Bryan, then a church warden.
This service, still in use here and from time to time put
on public display, bears the Royal Arms of Great Britain
and four Hall Marks, in a shield : the initials, M. F., for
the manufacturer, Mordecai Fox of England ; the letter
"R" denoting "Rex" or King by whom the plate was
evidently ordered ; a Lion, "passant gardant." guaran-
teeing that the silver was of the standard required by
law; and a leopard's head crowned, showing that the
plate was hall marked at the London government office.
A similar communion set, also made by Fox, was pre-
sented to the Old South Church, Boston, in 1742, with
books, vestments and linen for the church altar. An alms
basin, made also by the same manufacturer in 1760, is
owned by Trinity Church, New York.
Royal Governor Josiah Martin is reported to have tried
to take the local silver with him when he fled from New
Bern in May, 1775, but was prevented from doing so.
During the War Between the States the Rev. A. A. Wat-
son, local rector, took the service to Wilmington for safe
keeping. Afterwards it was moved to Fayetteville and
placed in the care of Dr. Joseph Huske, grandfather of a
later local rector. It is said to have been overlooked there
GIFTS FROM KING GEORGE 45
by the Federal troops, because it was hidden among a
great deal of worthless rubbish in a closet.
As was the custom in such presentations, according to
the late Graham Daves, secretary of this parish, who
investigated the Royal gifts during a visit to London in
1896, the ancient Bible and Book of Common Prayer still
in the possession of the local church were presented to the
parish by King George II at the same time as the silver. 2
The Bible is 20 Y> inches long, 13 14 inches wide and
41/4 inches thick. The initials, "G. R. E.," are found three
times on the back, under the crown, standing for "George,
Rex, England." On the front is the Royal coat of arms,
with the mottoes, "Dieu Et Mon Droit," (God and my
right) and "Honi Soit Qui Mai Pense," (Evil be to him
who evil thinks.) The volume is elaborately illustrated.
On the first page is the following in large print: "The
Holy Bible Containing the Old Testament and the New
Newly Tranflated Out of the Original Tongues and with
the former Translations Diligently Compared and Revifed
By His Majefty's Special Command. Appointed to be
read in Churches."
Under an ornamental engraving is the information that
the book was printed at Oxford: "Printed by John
Baskett, Printer to the King's Moft Excellent Majefty,
for Great Britain; and to the University. MDCCXVII."
As a heading for the scriptures is the following dedi-
cation : "To the Moft High and Mighty Prince James, By
the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. The Transflations
of the Bible, with Grace, Mercy and Peace through Jefus
Chrift Our Lord."
The large Prayer Book also contains on its covers, in
gilt, the coat of arms of Great Britain. Upon the back,
surmounted by a crown, are the monogram letters,
"G. R. E." It was published at Cambridge in 1752 by
Joseph Bentham, "Printer to the University."
Its first page has this statement: "The Book of Com-
mon Prayer and Adminiftration of the Sacraments and
other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church According to
46 CROWN OF LIFE
the Ufe of The Church of England Together with the
Psalter or Psalms of David Pointed as they are to be
sung or said in Churches ; and the Form or Manner of
Making, Ordaining and Confecrating of Bishops, Priests,
This Prayer Book was presented to Dr. Richard S.
Mason, later rector, by the vestry on his leaving this
parish in 1828. It was returned a few months after his
death by his wife, at his request. A note in Dr. Mason's
handwriting pasted in the volume says it was to be re-
turned to Christ Church ; and a letter on black-rimmed
stationery, dated June 20, 1874, and signed by Mary
Mason, also gives this information.
Both the Bible and Prayer Book were lent to the Hall
of History at Raleigh for some years, but are now here at
i St. Rec, XXIII, 420.
2 Much of the information in this chapter as to the history of the
communion service and the Hall Marks are from an unpublished,
typescript article by Graham Daves, pasted in one of the old church
THE REV. JAMES REED
FIRST RECTOR OF CHRIST CHURCH
Two ministers, both exceptionally worthy men, came
from England following the appeal of Christ Church
vestrymen in 1752. The first was the Rev. James Reed,
who became the first regular rector of the parish. Ar-
riving shortly afterwards was the Rev. Alexander
Stewart, who went to Bath.
Evidently Reed had felt certain that he would be en-
gaged here, for he is reported to have brought his family
with him. 1 They arrived late in the year 1753. After a
year's trial as clergyman, Reed was formally installed by
Act of the Assembly as the rector of Christ Church
Passed at the request of the Christ Church wardens and
vestrymen, the act read in part that the "Rev. James
Reed at great Charges and Expence, transported himself
from England hither and hath performed Divine Services
at the said church and at the several chappels within the
said parish One year and upwards, to the approbation of
The minister was promised an annual salary of 133
pounds, six shillings and eight pence, proclamation money,
so must have been considered an exceptionally fine pastor.
He was assured a good glebe house, with kitchen, the
"lot to be well and sufficiently paled in." 3
For his part of the contract, which was confirmed by
Governor Arthur Dobbs, Reed agreed to hold services at
Christ Church every Sunday except when he was on
leave at the chapels in this vicinity. He was to visit each
chapel three times a year. 4
This Assembly Act, passed in January, 1755, 5 confirmed
the agreement that the church wardens and vestry had
previously made with Reed. It was introduced by John
Fonveille, Craven County's Representative, and Solomon
48 CROWN OF LIFE
Rew, c Assemblyman from the Borough Town of New
Bern, who died the next Fall. 7
On December 18, 1754, the House of Commons, in
session at New Bern, passed a resolution naming Samuel
Swann and John Starkey, both of Onslow County, to wait
on Reed and thank him for the sermon he had delivered
before the House members on Sunday, December 15. 8
That he made a favorable impression is evidenced by
the fact that he served as Chaplain of the Assembly in
January, 1755, being paid ten pounds for this service. 9
He was specifically exempted from clergy acts. 10
Again the following October, at New Bern, Starkey and
James Carter of Rowan County were requested to return
the thanks of the House to Reed for the sermon he had
preached to the Assemblymen on the preceding Wednes-
Many times he served as the Assembly Chaplain, so
must have been a devout minister and eloquent speaker.
In March, 1757, 12 he was paid ten pounds for his services
during the Assembly session, according to Colonial
Records. He served also as House Chaplain in May,
1757 ; 13 and again in April, 1760, when the House met
daily at nine o'clock in the morning for religious
Eight chapels at remote points, besides Christ Church
in New Bern and St. John's parish church in Carteret
County, were served by Mr. Reed. 1 '" 3 In 1758 he was en-
rolled as a regular missionary of the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, but due to
miscarriage of mail he did not learn definitely of his
appointment until 1760. 16
On March 5, 1760, he wrote the S. P. G. Secretary to
thank him for the appointment and the organization's
instructions, as well as for a "parcel of books" and "pious
tracts." He promised to distribute the pamphlets and
said that one had already brought good results in en-
couraging church members to attend Holy Communion
services here more regularly. 17
Terming the S. P. G. aid "a great encouragement to
perseverance in the faithful discharge of my ministerial
THE REV. JAMES REED 49
duty," the rector pledged himself to endeavor to answer
their expectations "to the utmost of my abilities that the
society may never have occasion to repent of their ap-
pointment, nor our worthy Governor of his recommen-
Other ministers also preached at the new church in
New Bern. On December 27, 1755, the Rev. Michael
Smith, 19 of Johnston County, later of St. James, New
Hanover County, delivered a sermon there for the Ancient
and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons.
At the request of members, his sermon was printed here
in 1756 by James Davis. In October, 1756, a sermon Mr.
Smith preached before the House during a General As-
sembly session here was ordered printed. 20
i Cheshire, Sketches, 74.
2 St. Rec, XXIII, 420-21.
5 Col. Rec, V, 310.
» Ibid., 241.
9 Ibid., 307.
10 Ibid., 1080.
ii Ibid., 550.
12 Ibid., 688.
IB ibid., 845.
14 Ibid., VI, 366.
15 Ibid., 230.
16 Ibid.. 231.
wibid., V, 961-62.
20 ibid., 665, 696.
ROYAL GOVERNOR ARTHUR DOBBS
When Arthur Dobbs, of Castle Dobbs, Ireland, author
of scientific and other books, High Sheriff of County
Antrim, Surveyor General of Ireland, and Member of the
Irish Parliament for Carrickfergus, 1 was appointed Royal
Governor of North Carolina, he was instructed June 17,
1754, by the Lords of Trade to the King to "take especial
care God Almighty be . . . served . . . the Book of Com-
mon Prayer as by law established read each Sunday and
holiday," and Communion administered according to the
Church of England. 2
Churches were to be kept open, and more churches and
rectories should be built, the new Governor was told.
Ministers were to obtain certificates from the Bishop of
London ; and every orthodox rector was to be a member of
the vestry in his parish. 3 No schoolmaster was to serve
without a license from the Governor and the Bishop of
Dobbs endeavored to carry out these directions, but
that he was confronted by a difficult task is borne out by
what the Rev. Mr. Fontaine wrote about North Carolina
in 1754: "They have no established laws, and very little
of the gospel, in that whole colony." 5
In January, 1755, after two months in his gubernatorial
capacity, Dobbs wrote: "What I have chiefly observed
since I came here as to the wants & Defects of this
Province is first the want of a sufficient Number of
Clergymen to instil good principals and Morality into the
Inhabitants, & proper Schoolmasters to instruct their
Youth, the want of which occasion an Indolence & want of
attention to their own good." 6
The Assembly appropriated 7,200 pounds for the pur-
chase of glebes and 2,000 pounds for the purchase of
public buildings, subject to the King's approval; but,
ROYAL GOVERNOR ARTHUR DOBBS 51
though His Majesty later sanctioned the appropriations,
the money was used instead for aiding the British during
the French and Indian wars. Repeated requests were
made for the return of these sums for their original
A day of solemn fasting and war prayers was set aside
by Governor Dobbs in April, 1757. 8 By another proclama-
tion, June 7, 1758, was designated as a time for fasting,
supplication and thanksgiving. 9 To celebrate victory, he
issued another formal proclamation for a thanksgiving
day during the Fall of 1759, he wrote William Pitt in Eng-
land, and he even composed a special thanksgiving hymn
to be sung through the province. 10
During November, 1757, he again suggested amend-
ments for the bill providing for an established clergy. 11
Church laws had been evaded in some counties by citizens
combining to elect vestrymen who they knew would not
serve. To Dobbs it seemed better to put a general tax on
all taxable persons in the entire province and pay the
clergy directly out of that sum in the public treasury,
using any surplus for the erection of church buildings. 12
A year later, in November, 1758, his main recommenda-
tion to the Assembly again was for a better law to main-
tain the clergy. 13 He urged that ministers' salaries be
fixed and vestries better regulated so that future vestry-
men would not have the right to reduce the salaries and
supplies of their rectors. It was also suggested that
vestrymen be carefully chosen and then obliged to qualify
"I must also recommend to you the erecting proper
schools in the Province for the education of youth, in the
reformed Protestant Religion, and in moral religious
principles," he wrote, "otherwise in the next age we shall
have a succession of Infidels, Deists, Enthusiasts and
Sectaries to the disgrace of our Holy Religion and
destruction of Society." 14
Accordingly, measures for better provision of the
clergy and selection of vestries were passed in 1758.
52 CROWN OF LIFE ■
Every minister in the province was to be allowed an an-
nual salary of 100 pounds, proclamation money, also a
"glebe with a mansion house, outhouses and other con-
veniences," or, if no house, twenty more pounds. It was
set forth that this should not conflict with Mr. Reed's
Although later repealed and included in a more compre-
hensive law of 1762, the new provisions were the best
for the clergy in provincial history up to that time, the
General Assembly reported to the King:
"And more we should have gladly done; but alas, Sir,
the Country is so impoverished in its circumstances
through granting repeated Aids to your Majesty for
making the same defensible and in carrying on Expe-
ditions . . . against the French and their Indian Allies,
that we cannot give sufficient encouragement to the
Clergy, nor Erect proper Schools for the Education of
our Youth. Permit us, therefore, most earnestly to
intreat your Majesty to order and direct that the pro-
portion of the said sum which shall be allotted to this
Country be laid out ... in purchasing a Glebe for each
parish in this province . . . and erecting and establishing
a free School in every County." 16
In a letter from New Bern, Governor Dobbs reported
to the Board of Trade May 18, 1759, that he had approved
bills for a lottery to finish churches at Wilmington and
Brunswick, as similar bills had been passed in a number
of provinces and it had seemed impossible to get the
vestries to levy taxes to complete the two churches. 17 A
bill passed in December, 1760, applied proceeds from
slaves and other effects taken from Spaniards at Cape
Fear in 1748 towards finishing the two houses of wor-
i Vass, op. cit., 22.
2 Col. Rec, V, 1136.
■i Ibid., 1137.
^ Ibid., V, v.
6 Ibid., 314.
t Ibid., 527, 1095; VI, 988-89, 1036-37, 1154a-54b. St. Rec, XXIII,
8 Col. Rec, V, 755.
ROYAL GOVERNOR ARTHUR DOBBS 53
9 Ibid., 932.
10 ma., VI, 62-64, 65.
ii Ibid., V, 870.
12 ibid., 870, 1014; VI, 5, 223.
i3iMd., V, 1014.
15 Ibid., 1036; VI, 5. St. Rec, XXV, 364.
16 Col. Rec, V, 1095.
n Ibid., VI, 32, 511. St. Rec, XXIII, 535-37.
is St. Rec, XXIII, 535-37.
LARGE PARISH TERRITORY
An Assembly bill in January, 1760, proposing to divide
Christ Church parish, was rejected by the Upper House, 1
although "Parson" Reed reported to the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts that his terri-
tory was at least a hundred miles long. 2 On June 26,
1760, he wrote the S. P. G. Secretary that he could not
ascertain the number of active communicants of the
Church of England, because the county was so large he
was unable to administer Communion at the several
chapels more than once a year. 3
"There are too many that can hardly be said to be
members of any particular Christian society," he com-
mented, "and a great number of dissenters of all
denominations from New England, particularly Anabap-
tists, Methodists, Quakers and Presbyterians." About
nine or ten were said to be "Papists." The "Infidels &
Heathen" were said to total about a thousand. 4
No Indians were reported, but a great many of the
Negroes were said to be heathen. "I baptize all those
whose masters become sureties for them," he added. 5
Erection of a chapel in Carteret County was mentioned,
"built a neat wooden chapel upon Newport River, where
a small, regular congregation constantly attend divine
service, performed by a layman every Sunday." 6
Two bishops for the continent, one for the Northern
district and the other for the Southern district, or two
clergymen with Episcopal powers, as well as more regular
rectors, were requested of the Society for the Propa-
gation of the Gospel in a letter written January 22, 1760,
by Governor Dobbs. The society was asked to increase its
missionaries in this province, which was said to have
80,000 white residents besides Negroes, 7
"Nor have we but eight resident Clergymen," the
governor observed. "Having only strollers who set up
LARGE PARISH TERRITORY 55
for teachers, without any regular instruction, and many
of them immoral Livers." s
That Mr. Reed had given satisfaction in his parish is
proved by the following recommendation given him
March 3, 1760, by the church vestry:
"We, the subscribers, the church wardens and only
vestrymen at present qualified of Christ Church parish,
which is the whole extent of Craven County, in the pro-
vince of North Carolina, do hereby certify that the Rev.
James Reed hathe served the cure of the sd. parish for
6 years & upwards, that during the sd. time he hath
diligently attended one Parish church & 8 chapels situate
at very great distances from the town of Newbern, the
place of his residence & centre of the Parish.
"That he hath given great satisfaction to his parish-
ioners by a regular and exemplary life and a faithful
discharge of his duty & that there is a perfect harmony
and good agreement subsisting between the sd. Rev. Jas.
Reed & his Parishioners in general, witness our hands
this 3rd. day of March, 1760." 9
This recommendation is signed by John Fonvielle,
Will'm. Jonas, church wardens ; James Shine, Thos.
Graves, Lem'l. Hatch, Jacob Blount, vestrymen.
Reed had a comfortable rectory here, as indicated in a
letter written to the S. P. G. Secretary by the Rev. John
MacDowell on April 16, 1761, that New Bern had had an
Assembly Act passed allowing 100 pounds sterling a year
to Reed and that Reed had a parsonage house and all
But, according to his own word, the local rector did not
get the salary promised locally. Other difficulties are
set forth in a letter he wrote to the S. P. G. on December
27, 1762, from New Bern :
"The hardships we labor under in this Province are so
great that were it not for the benevolences of the Society,
we could not subsist with the least decency. Every
clergyman that has attempted to settle in this Province
for these 10 years past, upon the sole dependence of the
legal stipend, have been obliged to leave it, and 'tis our
misfortune at Present to have no legal Stipend at all; or
56 CROWN OF LIFE
rather there is no law at present by which any stipend can
"At an Assembly held at New Bern in Nov'r. last a
bill for the encouragement of an Orthodox Clergy and a
bill for the establishment of Vestries were presented to
his Excellency the Governor for his assent, the latter of
which was rejected on account of some exceptional
Clauses, and as the 2 bills depended on each other in such
a manner, that the one cannot operate without the other,
we are therefore at present without any legal encourage-
"Very probably something may be done in our favor
at the next Assembly, especially if it should please God to
prolong the life of our praiseworthy Gov'r. But we can-
not expect his abode with us much longer, for he is far
advanced in years and has lately had a slight stroke of
the Palsy; so that I every day expect to hear the dis-
agreeable news of his death, in whom the clergy will lose
a faithful friend, and the Christian Religion an able
The following June 26 Reed wrote the Secretary that
the clergy were still destitute of any legal provision or
encouragement and had nothing to live on but the
benevolences of the Society. Evidently the local parish
paid him very little, and for long periods of time must
have paid him nothing.
"I have not received any stipend at all from my Parish
for upwards of 14 months," he wrote, "nor have I the
least expectation of receiving one shilling till some Vestry
Law be enacted, for as long as there is no vestry Law no
tax can be levied for the clergy's Stipend & tho' the
Sheriffs have now a whole year's collection in their hands
yet as there is no vestry to call them to account they do
not choose to part with the money on any terms or
security whatsoever, the misfortune is they too often
stand in need of it themselves. For the generality of the
Sheriffs are very extravagant, to say no more . . .
"The Assembly is to meet I believe about Oct'r. next
when our Governor will endeavor if possible to get a
better vestry Law enacted than any of the former ones,
LARGE PARISH TERRITORY 57
that have been repealed. It would be much better for
the Clergy, than it has been, if the Stipend were paid out
of the public treasury as in So. Carolina . . .
"The churchwardens used to send us to the Sheriffs,
and the Sheriffs to send us back again to the church-
wardens. It is not long ago since I had the misfortune to
be sent backwards and forward & played off in this
manner for 12 months successively." 12
i Col. Rec, VI, 172.
2 Ibid., 595.
3 Ibid., 265.
6 Ibid., 265-66.
1 1bid., 222-23.
8 Ibid., 223.
9 Ibid., 230.
io Ibid., VI, 554.
ii Ibid., 745.
12 Ibid., 990.
NUMEROUS CHURCH BILLS
So many church bills were introduced in the General
Assembly during the Colonial period, many of them being
passed but later repealed or vetoed, that it is extremely
difficult to keep up with their provisions from time to
Alex Stewart, missionary at Bath, reported May 20,
1760, that in the six years he had resided in the province
four different acts had been passed by the Assembly for
electing vestries and encouraging an orthodox clergy. The
last one had met the fate of most of the others, he said,
through repeal in England. 1
Governor Dobbs, as Parson Reed said, worked dili-
gently in behalf of the established church and its clergy-
men ; but for various reasons, here and abroad, it seemed
impossible to get definite action that would last
The Assembly tried to re-enact the Vestry bill repealed
by the King, taking the nomination of ministers from the
Crown, the Governor reported January 22, 1760, but the
assemblymen had been too busy with other matters, so
established a Vestry law for one year to retain the tax
for maintaining clergy pursuant to the last act, which
settled 100 pounds per annum on clergy, with 20 pounds
in lieu of glebe. At the next session, he remarked, it was
hoped to establish a general fund to pay the rectors direct
from the provincial treasury, as in South Carolina. 2
Church wardens were instructed in 1760 to appear
annually at the orphans' court to present the names of
orphans without guardians or apprenticeships and to
report abuses of guardians. Justices and wardens failing
to do their duty along this line were liable to fines of ten
Mr. Reed's contract exempted him from the act
establishing vestries passed by the Assembly May 23,
1760. This permitted all parishes to elect their own
NUMEROUS CHURCH BILLS 59
vestries, but since it depended on the general vestry act,
it was not considered valid, and later was repealed by the
King. 4 This question as to whether the King or the
colonists could select and remove rectors was one of the
pre-Revolutionary controversies between Americans and
their Mother Country. 5
The Bishop of London explained that one primary ob-
jection to the 1760 act was that it did not require
vestrymen to say that they continued to be faithful to
the Church of England. He recommended a stronger
declaration that they would conform to the church liturgy.
Objection was also raised to the bill's provision of
punishing immoral ministers in temporal courts. The
Bishop also declared that the clergy were not provided for
properly, being made dependent on vestries. And again
repeated was the 1759 declaration that the "whole right
of patronage is undoubtedly in the Crown, but the Act
takes away right and gives it to vestrymen." 6
Still another of the many orthodox clergy bills was
passed by the Assembly in 1762. Mention was also made
therein that it was not to conflict with Reed's agreement.
It was likely repealed by proclamation, because of pro-
visions opposed by the Governor and other British
Under this measure, ministers were to be engaged by
vestries, at salaries of 133 pounds, six shillings and eight
pence, the same amount as Mr. Reed's salary, besides
their regular fees. If believed guilty of immorality or
crime, they could be removed by the governor, with the
consent of a majority of his council members. All had to
have certificates from the Bishop of London, "ordained
conformable to the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church
of England, and is of a good Life and Conversation."
For marrying a couple by license, a clergyman was to
be paid twenty shillings; for marrying by banns, five
shillings. The remuneration for a funeral sermon was
set at forty shillings. If these rites were conducted by
other persons, the regular rectors were nevertheless per-
mitted to demand and receive the fees.
60 CROWN OF LIFE
Vestrymen were privileged to purchase glebe lands, and
erect thereon a "convenient mansion-house, 38 x 18, with
kitchen, barn, stable, dairy and meat house." If no house
was provided for a rectory, the minister was to receive
twenty additional pounds a year.
The Bishop of London wrote May 3, 1762, referring to
the general confusion of so many Assembly laws passed
and repealed, to remind the colonists that, "All statutes
made in England for the establishment of the Church
shall be in force under the law in North Carolina." 8
i Col. Rec, VI, 242.
2 Ibid., 223.
3 Ibid., 395. St. Rec, XXV, 415-22.
4 Col. Rec, VI, xxxi, 395. St. Rec, XXV, 430-32.
5 Col. Rec, VII, 152; IX, 81-84.
6 Ibid., VI, 714-16.
7 Ibid., V, pp. xxxi-xxxii. St. Rec, XXIII, 583-85.
8 Col. Rec, VI, 716.
FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL
Despite the fact that Parson Reed was not paid regu-
larly and encountered numerous handicaps in his local
work, he undertook many more activities than called for
in his contract. Chief among his outside interests were
his efforts in behalf of education, resulting here impor-
tantly in the opening of North Carolina's first incorporated
As early as December, 1762, the House thanked him for
the sermon at the beginning of the Assembly session,
"Recommending the Establishing Public Schools for the
Education of Youth." He was requested to furnish "the
Printer with a copy thereof, that the same might be
printed and dispersed in the several counties within this
Only slight encouragement had previously been given
to public education. Children of the privileged classes
were taught by private tutors or at private schools. Some
studied in Northern States or in England. But poorer
boys and girls had to learn as best they could, or not at
all. Trade apprentices were sometimes taught the three
R's by their masters. Charles Griffin, Church of England
lay reader, who opened a school in 1705 in Pasquotank
County, is believed to have been the first teacher to come
to North Carolina. 2
In 1749 John Starkey had introduced a bill for a free
school. 3 In 1754 the sum of 6,000 pounds was authorized
for schools, but was diverted for military purposes. Other
funds appropriated were disallowed in England. 4
The Assembly in 1758 asked King George that part of
the sum be provided by the Crown for schools and
churches, in return for Colonial war aid, but objections
were raised up to 1763. Merchants are reported to have
opposed use of public money for such purposes. 5
Governor Dobbs frequently urged the need of better
schools and more schoolmasters in the province. 6 On
62 CROWN OF LIFE '
March 30, 1762, he wrote the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel that the number of clergy had been dimin-
ished and that the inhabitants were more "dissolute and
idle for want of clergy and school, there being not even
a Parish Clerk in the Province to serve as a Schoolmaster
or Reader." 7 For almost 30 parishes in the province, he
pointed out, there were only seven clergymen, including
one who did little. 8
Largely due to Mr. Reed's influence, a school was opened
here January 1, 1764, with Thomas Tomlinson as school-
master. 9 The General Assembly on March 9 ratified an
"Act for building a schoolhouse and schoolmaster's
residence in New Bern." 10 Reed, John Williams, Joseph
Leech, Thomas Clifford Howe, Thomas Haslen, Richard
Cogdell and Richard Fenner were named as the first
As "Missionary in Craven County," Mr. Reed reported
on local church and school matters in general to the
S. P. G. Secretary June 21. 12 First he told of the passage
of a Vestry Act by the Assembly, with the aid and in-
fluence of "our worthy Governor to whom the clergy in
this Province can never sufficiently express their grati-
tude." Under this act vestries could levy taxes of ten
shillings for building churches, maintaining the poor,
paying church readers and encouraging schools.
Then he reported on the receipt of books and tracts on
various occasions, commenting, "For tho' the heat of the
Methodists be considerably abated, yet the distribution of
such tracts will be of great service."
About the school he wrote: "We have now a prospect
of a very flourishing school in the town of New Bern &
which indeed has been greatly wanting for several years
past, in Dec'r. last Mr. Tomlinson, a young man, who had
kept a school in the County of Cumberland in England,
came here by the invitation of his brother, an inhabitant
of the Parish.
"On the 1st of Jan'y. he opened a school in this Town
& immediately got as many scholars as he could instruct
and many more have lately offered than he can possibly
take to do them justice, he has therefore wrote to his
FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL 63
friends in England to send him an assistant (Mr. Parrot)
and a subscription for a school house has been lately
carried on, with such success, that I have got notes on
hand payable to myself for upwards of 200 pounds this
currency (Equal to about 110 pounds Sterling) to build
a large commodious School House in New Bern & which
I shall endeavor to get completed as soon as possible, for
during 11 years Residence in this Province I have not
found any man so well qualified for the care of a school as
Mr. Tomlinson. He is not only a good scholar, but a man
of good conduct, has given satisfaction to the parents of
such children as are under his care, and will be of infinite
service to the rising generation . . .
"I have rode my long circuit twice with great satisfac-
tion. My congregations have been greatly crowded. My
number of communicants increased and the return of
my health made my duty not only easy but a real
pleasure ! I have likewise taken care of St. John's Parish
(in Carteret County) , which sickness would not permit me
to do last autumn & have visited it twice — once at the
court house where I baptised 24 children, again at a
private house where I baptised 11 children; and again at
the chapel upon Newport River where I baptised 14 chil-
dren and administered the sacrament of the Lord's Supper
to 36 communicants." 13
i Col. Rec, VI, 955.
2 Johnson, Guion Griffis, Ante-Bellum North Carolina, p. 18.
3 Col. Rec, IV, 977, 990, 994.
^ Ibid., V, xxv; VI, 5, 1006.
5 Ibid., V, xxv, 1095; VI, 3.
GIbid., V, 1014; VI, 116, 219, 449-50, 473, 839, 841, 1026, 1091, 1219.
7 Ibid., VI, 709.
9 Ibid., 1048.
io Ibid., 1145.
ii St. Rec, XXV, 484-85.
12 Col. Rec, VI, 1047-48.
OTHER SERVICES OF "PARSON" REED
A voluminous letter writer, particularly in reporting to
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign
Parts, the Rev. Mr. Reed's missives furnish today much
information about the church, school and other progress
during his era. He played a prominent Colonial role in
many fields of service.
Reed was one of four clergymen in the province praised
in 1764 by Governor Dobbs, who wrote the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel that there were only six clergy-
men in the province, four of whom performed their duty
diligently — those at Edenton, Bath, Halifax and New
The North Carolina Magazine or Universal Intelli-
gencer, published by James Davis at New Bern, carried an
advertisement in August, 1764, in the form of a "Notice
to the Freeholders of Chrift Church Parifh, Craven
This notice stated that the subscriber, Richard Cogdell,
sheriff, would open polls at the courthouse for election of
vestrymen of the parish and there would be a fine of 20
shillings on every freeholder in the parish who failed to
attend and vote.
At that time and place, it was also stated, subscribers
to the schoolhouse fund were requested to elect two com-
missioners and a treasurer to direct and superintend the
building of the school.
All persons having bills against the parish and all owing
money to the parish were asked to be at the church
October 4 for settlement of accounts.
Jacob Blount and James Davis, as church wardens,
advertised in the latter's newspaper that on Thursday,
January 3, 1765, pews in Christ Church would be rented
to the highest bidders, for one year, by order of the
OTHER SERVICES OF "PARSON" REED 65
Accounts of the visit of the Methodist divine, the Rev.
Mr. Whitefield, are contained in Mr. Reed's correspond-
ence. The local rector wrote December 21, 1764, that the
preacher had arrived here Saturday, November 17, while
en route from the North to South Carolina and Georgia. 4
At the request of local persons, Reed reported, White-
field preached the next morning, Sunday, to a "very
numerous Congregation. That afternoon he continued on
his journey." At the time Reed said he was at a chapel
35 miles from New Bern.
Whitefield complained here of asthma, though he was
fat and looked well, the New Bernian wrote. But, because
of the asthma, he was said to preach seldom and never to
read prayers at the same time. New Bern was the only
place in which he preached in this province, Reed added,
or "probably anywhere south of New York."
Reed then added his opinion, "I think his discourse has
been of some real service here." Whitefield recommended
infant baptism, he remarked, and declared himself to be
a member and a minister of the Church of England.
From New Brunswick Whitefield wrote, "At New Bern,
last Sunday, good impressions were made. The desire of
the people in the section to hear the gospel makes me
almost determined to come back early in the Spring."
He did return the next Spring, on his way back North
stopping over in New Bern and preaching here on Thurs-
day evening of Passion Week in 1765 and also on Easter
Sunday at Christ Church. 5
Mr. Reed cooperated not only with Governor Dobbs but
also with the latter's successor, William Tryon. Due to
Governor Dobbs' advancing age and failing health, King
George III of England, who had ascended the throne in
1760 upon the death of his grandfather, King George II,
commissioned Tryon as Lieutenant-Governor of North
Carolina on April 26, 1764. 6
Tryon was 35 years of age, a member of an English
family of high standing. On October 10 he arrived in the
colony, at Cape Fear. 7 Three days after the death of
Governor Dobbs, he assumed temporary control of the
provincial government, on March 31, 1765. 8 His com-
66 CROWN OF LIFE ■
mission as governor arrived later and was officially opened
before the Council on December 20. 9
Not only loyal to the Crown but also zealous for the
established church, Governor Tryon soon recommended
passage of an Assembly bill for a better provision for an
orthodox clergy. 10 Passed in May, 1765, u this re-enacted
the repealed 1762 bill, with omission of the former dis-
approved features. 12
The stipend for the clergy was fixed at 133.6.3, with
shorter and easier methods provided for their recovery by
law. Certain fees were set for marriage ceremonies and
funeral sermons. Vestrymen retained the right to tax
and pay salaries, and were supposed to supply their
rectors with glebes of 200 acres of good land and a
residence, or pay 20 pounds a year more if no rectory was
The right of presentation or selection of ministers of
the established church was granted to the Crown, through
the Governor, thus relieving rectors from the so-called
"insolence and tyranny of vestries." 13 The Governor and
his Council were given authority to suspend clergymen
deemed guilty of gross crime or notorious immorality.
Their suspension was revocable by the Bishop of London.
Although confirmed and ratified by the King, on the
advice of his Privy Council, this act was easier to pass
this time than to enforce. In some counties residents
refused to receive the clergymen sent by the governor.
Some men elected vestrymen would not qualify or act. 14
Later the measure was amended in 1766 so that the salary
of a suspended minister, or part of it, might be paid to
his substitute. 15
Under the act, Tryon officially commissioned Reed as
rector of Christ Church, where he had already been
serving for almost 12 years. An original manuscript of
this commission is now on file in the New York Historical
Society Library in New York City, among the papers
collected by the late Dr. Francis L. Hawks, whose grand-
father, John Hawks, had signed the document as a wit-
ness. It reads as follows :
OTHER SERVICES OF "PARSON" REED 67
"To all, to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting.
"Know ye, that I, William Tryon, Esquire, Lieutenant-
Governor and Commander in Chief in, and over, the
Province of North Carolina, and by virtue of His Majesty's
Commission true and undoubted patron of the Rectory,
Benefice or Parish of Christ Church in the County of
Craven, in the Province aforesaid, and Diocese of London ;
for divers good Causes and Considerations, me thereunto
moving, have empowered, and by these Presents do em-
power, Thomas Clifford Howe, Esquire, of said Craven
County and Province aforesaid, to induct The Reverend
James Reed, Clerk, A. B., into the Rectory, Benefice or
Parish, of Christ Church, in said County, Province and
Diocese of London.
"In Testimony whereof I have hereunto set my Hand
and Caused the Great Seal of the said province to be
affixed at Brunswick this second day of September in the
year of our Lord 1765 and in the Fifth Year of His
"William Tryon. (Seal)
"By His Honour's Command
Fount'n Elwin, p. Sec.
"Inducted September the 10th, 1765, by me.
(Test) "Thomas. C. Howe."
i Col. Rec, VI, 1039.
2 Photostat copies of this newspaper in the archives of the North
Carolina Historical Commission, Raleigh, N, C.
4 Col. Rec, VI, 1060-61.
5 Col. Rec, VII, 97, 104.
6 Ibid., VI, 1043-44.
7 Ibid., 1053-54.
8 Ibid., 1320.
9 Ibid., VII, 159-160.
10 Ibid., 42.
ii St. Rec, XXIII, 660-62.
12 Col. Rec, VII, 150-153, 158; VIII, xliii.
13 Ibid., VII, 97.
14 Ibid., VIII, xliii.
is Ibid., VII, 891-92, 920; VIII, xliv. St. Rec, XXIII, 759.
CHURCH AND SCHOOL
On May 16, 1765, James Reed and 39 other prominent
residents of New Bern and the vicinity reported to
Governor Tryon that the money subscribed for establish-
ment of a school at New Bern had been partly spent for
materials for a school building and that they desired
Thomas Tomlinson, the instructor, to have more pupils
and be able to procure an assistant. 1
Governor Tryon was requested to ask the Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel to allow a yearly salary for
Tomlinson. The schoolmaster, 31 years of age 2 when he
had arrived here in December, 1763, was said to be en-
deavoring to teach the children "in such branches of use-
ful learning as are necessary in several of the offices or
stations in life, and imprint on their tender minds the
principles of the Christian religion agreeable to the
establishment of the Church of England." 3
This petition was signed by the following men: James
Reed, Missionary, Thomas Clifford Howe, Samuel Cornell,
John Williams, Richard Cogdell, Richard Caswell, James
Davis, Peter Conway, John Clitherall, Jacob Blount,
Richd. Ellis, Francis Macilwean, Alexdr. Gaston, Phil.
Ambrose, Jacob Sheppard, Jos. Jones, John Daly, Will.
Euen, Timo. Cleary, Jno. Pindar, Pat. Gordon, John
Franck, Tho. Pollock, Bernard Parkinson, Wm. Wilton,
Christ. Neale, Thos. Sitgreaves, Corn. Groenendyke, Jno.
Green, John Fonville, Longfield Cox, Jno. Smith, Cullen
Pollock, Richd. Fenner, Amb. Cox Bayley, Andr. Scott,
Andr. Stewart, Eliu Cotting, Jno. Moore, Alex. Eagles.
Reed reported that collections of school pledges were
slow. 4 On July 10 there were 30 pupils, at 20 shillings
proclamation money per quarter. 5 But, much of this was
not paid. And it was not sufficient to operate the school
efficiently. Hence, aid was desired from the Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
CHURCH AND SCHOOL 69
Tryon wrote for this financial supplement, 6 and it was
pledged by the Society. 7 He reported July 31 that there
were only five clergymen then in the province, for 32
parishes. Four S. P. G. missionaries were listed: Reed,
in Craven County; Earl, near Edenton in Chowan;
Stewart, at Bath in Beaufort County; and Moir, an
itinerant missionary. 8
As to Reed, the Governor added he had seen "much of
him at the General Assembly held at New Bern. I really
esteem him a man of great worth 9 . ... I pledged my
endeavors to get decent clergymen," 10 and also to ask
more aid from the Society. 11
Referring to the condition of the churches, Tryon said
that the church at New Bern was "in good repair;" at
Wilmington there were "walls only ;" at Brunswick "only
outside walls built and roofed." The Bath church was
said to be "wanting considerable repairs," and Edenton,
"wanting as much." Chapels were reported to have been
established in every county, "served by a Reader where
no clergyman can be procured." 12 Only one complete
glebe house, with full glebe lands, was said then to be in
the colony, "at Bath and nowhere else." 13
That Summer Reed contracted a severe attack of yellow
fever. 14 During his illness Tomlinson likely acted as his
substitute in holding services at Christ Church. 15
Mr. Reed wrote the Society January 14, 1766: "We
have suffered the most intense heat during the last sum-
mer that ever was known in the memory of man and
about the middle of August I was seized with the yellow
fever," an "exceeding violent" attack, "but soon over,"
though it left him permanently deaf. 16
The Rev. Mr. Stewart had been brought to New Bern
in a horse litter during December, having lost the use of
his limbs from rheumatism, and was under the care of a
physician, Reed reported. He commented also, "though
people here are peaceable and quiet, yet they seem very
uneasy, discontented and dejected." 17
His illness over, Reed renewed his efforts for the local
school, and on July 20 wrote to the S. P. G. : "Schoolhouse
is at length enclosed . . . Large and decent Edifice for
70 CROWN OF LIFE
such a Young Country — forty-five feet in length, thirty
in breadth, and has already cost upwards of 300 pounds
this currency." 18
All subscriptions had been expended, he said :
"I have preached and begged in its behalf, until the
suppliant is entirely weary and charity cold." The floors
had not been laid, and the chimneys had not been built.
"I have therefore sent a Bill of Exchange for my last half
year's salary to New York to purchase Bricks for the
Chimneys and intend at the next session of Assembly . . .
in November to recommend the undertaking from the
pulpit . . .
" 'Twould give me great satisfaction to see a little
flourishing Academy in this place. I have this affair much
at heart, and the difficulties I have met with have given
me much uneasiness. Mr. Tomlinson received a small
additional stipend last Easter Monday. The vestry then
agreed to pay him twelve pounds per annum for attending
the church in New Bern at such times as I am obliged to
be absent and attend the several Chapels. I have fur-
nished him with Tillotsons Sermons and the congregation
attends very regularly." 19
The minister kept his word, and on December 1, 1766,
the General Assembly incorporated the local school, 20 first
to be so chartered in the province 21 and second private
secondary school in English America to receive a charter.
Under this charter, the schoolmaster had to be a mem-
ber of the Church of England. 22 Upon recommendation
of the trustees, he was required to obtain a license from
the governor. 23 The eleven trustees were given authority
to elect other trustees in case of vacancies 24 and to dis-
miss schoolmasters without the consent of the Royal
Governor, 25 powers to which British representatives later
objected. Thus both school and church furnished some
of the controversies which arose between English rulers
and colonists in those pre-Revolutionary days.
The Rev. Mr. Reed, named one of the school trustees, 26
reported that the school building was completed in 1768,
though it was perhaps used even before being finished, on
CHURCH AND SCHOOL 71
the corner site of the present school campus, on New and
Hancock Streets. 27
A tax of one penny per gallon levied for seven years on
spirituous liquors imported through Neuse River helped
support the new school, including the teacher's salary of
twenty pounds, or about $100, a year, an assistant's
salary of the same amount, and the tuition of ten poor
children selected by the trustees. 28
i Col. Rec, VII, 35-36.
2 Epitaph on his tombstone in Cedar Grove cemetery states that
Tomlinson died September 24, 1802, at age of 70 years.
3 Col. Rec, VII, 35-36.
* Ibid.. 98.
7 Ibid., 458.
io ibid., 103.
13 Ibid., 99.
i-± Ibid.. 154.
15 Ibid., 241; IX, 305.
16 Ibid., VII, 154.
is Ibid., 241.
20 Ibid., 339, 420. St. Rec, XXIII, 678-80.
21 Col. Rec, VII, 432, 458.
22 ibid., 432. St. Rec, XXIII, 679.
23 St. Rec, XXIII, 679.
24 Ibid., 678-80.
25 Col. Rec, VII, 316; IX, 243.
26 Ibid., IX, 242.
27 Ibid., VII, 750. St. Rec, XXIII, 679-80; XXV, 516.
28 Col. Rec, IX, 239. St. Rec, XXIII, 680.
ROYAL GOVERNOR WILLIAM TRYON
As a "staunch churchman," 1 Royal Governor Tryon,
as has been noted, did much to help the established
church. The Rev. Andrew Morton referred to him as
"that amiable and good man, who may be justly called
the Nursing Father of the Church in this Province." 2
The Rev. Mr. Moir wrote, "Governor Tryon, though a
soldier, has done more for the settlement of a regular
ministry in this province than both his learned Prede-
Another minister, the Rev. George Micklejohn, later
declared : "We have a governor who rules a willing Peo-
ple with the Indulgent Tenderness of a common parent,
who desires rather to be beloved than feared . . .
defender and friend, the Patron and nursing father of the
Church established amongst us — he is a Religious
Frequenter of its Worship and a steady adherent to its
In February, 1766, Tryon became a member of the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign
Parts, and gave it a handsome cash donation. 5 He made
a contribution of forty guineas towards the church being
built at Brunswick. 6
However, his religious interests were not confined to
his own denomination. Other faiths also grew stronger
under his rule. Dr. Hugh Williamson, Presbyterian
historian, in his history of North Carolina, wrote, "It was
fortunate for the dissenters that Governor Tryon was not
a bigot." 7 Bishop J. B. Cheshire wrote that Governors
Johnston and Dobbs were both zealous churchmen but
that Tryon did much more to advance religion in North
Thirteen Church of England ministers were in the
province in 1767, a substantial increase over the five that
were here when he arrived. They were listed April 30 of
that year, as follows: 9
ROYAL GOVERNOR WILLIAM TRYON 73
Reed, Christ Church, Craven County; Micklejohn, St.
Matthews, Orange County; Stewart, St. Thomas, Bath;
Morton, St. George, Northampton; Samuel Fiske, St.
John, Pasquotank; Thomas Floyd, Society, Bertie; these
six established by letters of Presentation by the Governor.
Daniel Earl, in charge in Chowan County, who was said
never to have applied for Presentation ; Thomas Burgess,
Edgecombe, Halifax, settled by Act of Assembly; John
Barnett, St. Philip, Brunswick; John Wills, St. James,
New Hanover; James Cosgreve; William Miller, St.
Patrick, Dobbs; and Charles Cupples, St. John, Bute,
"not yet established." 10
These ministers had no easy time. Even Reed, as
already indicated, had dire difficulties. In 1767, when
there were 1,378 white taxables in Craven County, 11 the
Rev. Mr. Stewart wrote the Society that Reed would have
"been obliged to desert his parish" had not Mr. Dobbs
induced the Society "to take him on their list . . . The
parish of New Bern, known to be the most beneficial
parish at that time in this province when money was
plenty, on a better footing and punctually paid, was in-
sufficient to support Mr. Reed (a parsimonious saving
man and without children.") 12
Mr. Stewart informed the S. P. G. that the lack of a
currency medium made it impossible for North Carolina
churches to pay proper salaries and that a nominal salary
of 100 pounds sterling was hardly equal to 40 pounds
sterling in South Carolina, Virginia and Northern
But the rectors and missionaries performed valiant
service along many lines. Among the tracts and sermons
published by James Davis at New Bern was one by
Stewart in 1758, entitled, "The Validity of Infant
A number of additional church acts were passed by
the Assembly during Tryon's administration. In 1766
the previous year's law concerning the orthodox clergy
was amended so that if a minister was considered guilty
of crime or immorality the governor and council might
suspend him until the Bishop of London could review and
74 CROWN OF LIFE
decide the case; and meanwhile the church wardens and
vestry could allow any deserving minister to substitute,
at full or part pay. 15
During that same year another act continued for
another five years the bill for vestries passed five years
earlier, permitting freeholders to change vestrymen not
then serving. Any person elected to the vestry and re-
fusing to serve was liable to a fine of three pounds. 16
In that year, too, it was made lawful for a Presbyterian
minister to marry a couple by license. 17 But the Church
of England minister was still to get the fee whether or
not he officiated, provided he did not refuse to serve.
Prior to that, no minister except one of the established
church was legally allowed to celebrate the rite of matri-
mony. However, this 1766 act was soon repealed. 18
The Vestry Act of 1768 19 was the last one seeking to
perpetuate the Church of England in North Carolina. It
was limited to five years, 20 but was then voted to be con-
tinued for ten years, 21 though nullified by the Revolution.
Governor Tryon selected New Bern as the seat of his
provincial government, following a tour of two months
through North Carolina. 22 As there was no suitable
government house here, plans were made for the erection
The General Assembly in November, 1766, passed with
a large majority a bill entitled: "An act for erecting a
convenient building within the town of New Bern for the
residence of the governor, or commander-in-chief for the
time being." 23 The Governor approved the measure
December l. 24
Construction of "Tryon's Palace," costing about
$80,000, 25 followed, 1767-70, with John Hawks from Eng-
land as the supervising architect. 26 The Assembly met
in 1768, 27 1769 28 and 1770 29 in the new school building at
New Bern, and even used the schoolhouse also in 1771, 30
1773 31 and 1774. 32 But, the new Palace was used chiefly
then for Assembly meetings. The governor wrote June
7, 1770, that he had just moved into the edifice, sooner
than he had expected; 33 and the first meeting of the
Assembly there was held the next December. 34
ROYAL GOVERNOR WILLIAM TRYON 75
Regarded as the most beautiful building in North or
South America, 35 this Palace played an important role
during Colonial, Revolutionary and early State history.
i Col. Rec, VIII, xliv.
2 Ibid., VII, 424.
3 Ibid., 145.
5 Ibid., 158, 162, 260. Haywood, Marshall DeLancey, Governor
William Tryon and His Administration, p. 28.
6 Col. Rec, VII, 164, 515.
7 Williamson, Hugh, History of North Carolina, Vol. II, p. 118.
s Cheshire, Sketches, p. 75.
9 Col. Rec, VII, 457.
11 Ibid., 539.
12 Ibid., 493.
14 Ibid., VI, 316. Old copies of the pamphlet.
15 Ibid., VII, 224. St. Rec, XXIII, 759.
16 St. Rec, XXIII, 759-60.
17 Ibid., 674. Col. Rec, VII, 432-33. Haywood, op. cit., p. 18.
is St. Rec, XXIII, 826. Col. Rec, VIII, xliv.
19 Col. Rec, VII, 920.
20 ibid., VIII, 4-5.
21 Ibid., IX, 1014-15. St. Rec, XXIII, 956.
22 Col. Rec, VII, 2.
23 Ibid.. 320. St. Rec, XXIII, 664-65.
24 Col. Rec, VII, 338.
25 Ibid., VIII, 626.
2d Ibid., VII, 431.
27 Ibid., 923, 984-85.
28 Ibid., IX, 272.
so ibid., 224, 226, 272.
31 Ibid., 371, 590.
32 Ibid., 953.
33 ibid., VIII, 211.
Mlbid., 282, 285.
35 Kimball, Fiske, Tryon' s Palace, published in Quarterly Bulletin
of the New York Historical Society, for January, 1940, pp. 13-14.
Lossing, Benson J., The Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution, Vol.
II, p. 570. Col. Rec, VII, 695; VIII, 285. Don Francisco de Miranda,
"the precursor of the Independence movement in Spanish America,"
who visited New Bern in 1783, is quoted by Francis Xavier Martin
in The History of North Carolina from the Earliest Period, Vol. II,
p. 265, as saying the Palace not only was the most beautiful in
North America but had no superior in South America.
THE REV. JAMES MCCARTNEY
At the beginning of the year 1767 James McCartney,
a native of Ireland, was employed to assist Tomlinson with
the New Bern school. 1 He continued in this capacity until
May, 1768. when he left for England to become a candi-
date for Holy Orders.- Very likely during this time he
served as lay reader at Christ Church.
Governor Tryon wrote the Bishop of London February
12. 176S, that McCartney ''waits on you for orders of
ordination.*' Mr. McCartney, he said, had also acted ably
as tutor to Speaker John Harvey's children. 3 The next
May 14 the Rev. Mr. Reed wrote the S. P. G. recom-
mending McCartney for priesthood. -
In his letter Reed reported that the ''duty upon rum
will amount to about 60 pounds per annum this currency
and will be sufficient to discharge present debts, com-
pletely finishing the school house, and pay Tomlinson 20
pounds per annum." He added. "T have baptized about
100 whites and blacks in my own parish from Midsummer
to Christmas last and about 30 in St. John's parish. '"■-
Ordained as a minister of the Church of England,
McCartney was licensed July 25 by the Bishop of London
for service in North Carolina. During November he
arrived back in New Bern, but was ill at home here for
several weeks. Following his recovery, he reported later,
he visited six extensive parishes, preached 49 sermons,
and baptized 763 white persons and 27 Negroes between
the middle of December and the latter part of May. 6
"Though many of these parishes would have received
me willingly, none would suit so weakly a Constitution as
mine." he wrote. 7 During this period he undoubtedly held
services here. Because of its climate, he decided the first
of June. 1769. to settle in Granville County."
For several years McCartney served the Granville
parish faithfully. In 1771 he was one of those contract-
ing with John Lvnch for erection of a church there.
THE REV. JAMES M'CARTNEY 77
Because he had known of John Hawks' excellent work
here, he was probably the one responsible for obtaining
Hawks to draw plans for the church. 9
A number of citizens signed a petition in 1771, praising
McCartney as "a credit to his holy profession" and recom-
mending that his bounty from the Society for the Propa-
gation of the Gospel be continued. It had been given him
temporarily when he returned to America after being
ordained. Since the subscribers were nominally church
members, many of them belonging to Christ Church here,
the list is quoted:
John Simpson, Aquila Sugg, William Cray, Richard
Ward, Samuel Johnston, Robert Howe, Francis Mackil-
wean, Ben. Hardy, Thomas Hines, Richard Evans,
Edward Hare, William McKinne, Thomas Gray, James
Green, Junr., Joseph Leech, Joseph Montfort, James
Blount, William Davis, Philemon Hawkins, John Campbell,
A. Nash, Hugh Waddell, Andrew Knox, Wm. Thomson,
Joseph Hewes, Jacob Shepard, Jacob Blount, James
Bonner, William Haywood, Moses Hare, James Hasell,
John Rutherford, Lewis deRosset, John Sampson, Alexr.
McCulloch, William Dry, Samuel Cornell, Marmaduke
Jones, Nat. Dukenfield, M. Moore, John Ashe, J. Moore,
Cornelius Harnett, Richard Caswell and John Harvey. 10
Also recommended for ordination orders by Governor
Tryon in the same year as McCartney was a talented
young actor named W. Giffard, who had come to the
province with a company of strolling players. In a letter
to the Bishop of London June 11, 1768, Tryon wrote from
Brunswick that Giffard was
"Most wearied of the vague life of his present pro-
fession, and fully persuaded he could employ his talent to
more benefit to society by going into holy orders and
superintending the education of the youth in this
province ... I was not assured how far your lordship
would choose to take a member of the theater into the
church . . . His behaviour has been decent, regular, and
commendable ... If your lordship grants Mr. Giffard
his petition, you will take off the best player on the
American stage." 11
78 CROWN OF LIFE
The sermon preached by the Rev. Mr. Micklejohn,
S. T. D., before "His Excellency Royal Governor Tryon
and the troops raised to quell the late Insurrection at
Hillsborough, on Sunday, Sept. 25, 1768," was printed by
James Davis at New Bern. 12
i Col. Rec, VII, 689.
2 Ibid., 750.
3 Ibid., 689.
Qlbid., VIII, 85.
7 Ibid., 85-86.
8 Ibid., 86.
9 A copy of the original plans is filed in the collection of Dr.
Francis L. Hawks, grandson of the architect, at the New York
Historical Society Library, 170 Central Park West, New York City.
io Col. Rec, IX, 61-62.
ii Ibid., VII, 786-87.
12 Ibid., 939, 976, 983. Copies of the sermon are extant. Dr.
R. D. W. Connor, then Secretary of the North Carolina Historical
Commission, edited one for The North Carolina Booklet, Vol. VIII,
No. 1, July, 1908, pp. 57-58.
TRYON ASKS MORE AID
Continuing his efforts to bolster the power of the
Church of England in this province, Governor Tryon wrote
Daniel Burton, S. P. G. Secretary, March 20, 1769, from
"The infancy of the established religion in this province
is undoubtedly the period and crisis for setting the Church
of England here on a solid basis. We have laid a more
firm and permanent foundation than any other colony can
boast, she now stands in need of the utmost assistance of
her friends to raise the superstructure ... I trust the
Society will not withdraw the missions of 50 pounds per
annum from those gentlemen who now enjoy them, but
rather exert every other aid in their power to facilitate
the propagation of the gospel here.
"The bounty of the Society of 20 pounds per annum
for two years to every minister coming out to this pro-
vince is certainly of real service. If it could be continued
for a longer duration it would be more beneficial. This
additional munificence possibly might exceed the limits
of the Society's economy. I do not presume to set bounds
to their liberality, my intention is singly to represent
what encouragement I judge would most effectually pro-
mote the cause of religion and consequently the felicity of
the inhabitants of the colony." 1
Church attendance at New Bern was decreased that
Autumn by one of the worst storms in the history of the
town. A letter written from New Bern December 6 by
the Rev. Alexander Stewart, of Bath, to the S. P. G.
describes its results.
Striking here September 7, it was reported as the
"most violent Gale of wind and the highest tide that was
ever known since this country has been inhabited . . .
No place has suffered so much as this Town of New Bern.
"One entire Street, Houses, Store Houses, wharves, etc.,
to the amount of near 20,000 pounds, were destroyed and
80 CROWN OF LIFE
swept off, together with several of the inhabitants, in a
few hours' time. The roads were impassable for several
weeks by reason of the trees fallen and the Bridges car-
ried away and so great is the scarcity of small Boats at
the Ferries, etc., that the people cannot travel nor attend
the places of public Worship as usual . . . My private
losses in the Hurricane upwards of 600 pounds ... I
question whether these lower Inhabitants will ever get
over it these seven years." 2
Martin Howard, Chief Justice of the Province, an
Anabaptist, was baptized by Mr. Reed during the Summer
of 1770. The rector offered to baptize by total immersion,
saying he regarded "the moral more than the mode." 3
Afterwards Howard was reported as "a constant com-
municant," 4 a valuable addition to Christ Church.
Howard's judicial career in North Carolina was a period
of disturbance and turbulence, (1767-1773) marked
principally by the War of the Regulators and the trials of
the offenders. He presided with impartiality and fair-
ness, although historians long maligned him because of
his strong Royalist leanings. 5
While residing on his plantation, "Richmond," near
New Bern, where he boasted that on "the best piece of
meadow in Carolina" he had made two blades of grass
grow where only one grew before, Howard founded St.
John's Lodge, No. 2, A. F. & A. M. He served as its first
Worshipful Master, after it received its charter January
10, 1772. 6
Later refusing to take an oath of allegiance to the new
State of North Carolina, continuing loyal to his King, he
moved to New York and Rhode Island in 1777, and the
next year returned to his native England. He was exiled
and banished from North Carolina by the Court of Pleas
and Quarter Sessions of Craven County in September,
1777, and his local property was confiscated. 7
i Col. Rec, VIII, 15.
2 Ibid., 159-60.
3 Ibid., IX, 6.
5 Haywood, op. cit., 49-50. Henderson, Archibald, article on
Howard, published in The Charlotte Observer and other North Caro-
lina newspapers, Sunday, March 17, 1935.
TRYON ASKS MORE AID 81
6 Original charters and minute books of St. John's Lodge are still
in excellent state of preservation, in Masonic Temple vault here.
The first entry in the minute books is dated January 9, 1772.
7 Data on Howard from various references in Volumes IX, X and
XI of Colonial and State Records of North Carolina; sketch of
Howard by Francis Nash, taken from Vol. Ill, Biographical History
of North Carolina; and memoir of Howard by Henry H. Edes, from
Transactions of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, March, 1900,
copy of which was presented to the New Bern Public Library by
Alexander B. Andrews, of Raleigh.
ROYAL GOVERNOR JOSIAH MARTIN
Royal Governor Tryon left North Carolina the last of
June, 1771, to become Royal Governor of New York, 1 and
he was succeeded here by Royal Governor Josiah Martin.
The latter, like the former, was deeply interested in the
local school and church, and did much to try to improve
educational and religious conditions throughout the
province, but he served at a difficult period.
Reed wrote of Tryon's transfer: "The clergy have lost
a powerful advocate and a very sincere friend." 2 Tryon
had believed that the church established by law was
right and advisable for the colonists and that it was
a major part of his duty to enforce the law and aid the
church in every way possible. That he did this is proved
by the fact that when he first came to North Carolina
there were only five clergymen of the Established Church
and when he left the province there were eighteen. 3
Yet, Tryon headed a subscription to obtain a minister
and a schoolmaster for Presbyterians in North Carolina,
and he had many friends among that denomination and
other faiths as well as in his own church. Presbyterian
pastors united to praise him and denounce the Regulators
upstate that opposed his government. 4
A new church act in January, 1771, again gave to
Presbyterian ministers the right to officiate at matri-
monial ceremonies in their customary manner. This was
passed with gubernatorial approval, but a clause sus-
pended operation subject to the king's approval. 5
This act, Tryon wrote, was an "indulgence" to which
the Presbyterians were entitled for their support of the
government: "If it is not thought too much to interfere
with, and check the growth of the Church of England, I
am sensible the attachment the Presbyterians have shewn
to the government merit the indulgence of this act." 6
Reed commented, regarding the act: "It was good
policy to keep the Dissenters in as good humour as possi-
ROYAL GOVERNOR JOSIAH MARTIN 83
ble, at such a critical juncture. Should this Act receive
the Royal assent, it would be a fatal stroke to the Church
of England, but as the Insurrection is entirely quelled I
flatter myself with hopes that the Act will meet with a
Apparently Reed had no idea that the act would be
given the King's approval, and the Board of Trade en-
couraged His Majesty to disallow it. Accordingly, it was
Reed continued his church duties here and on July 2,
1771, reported: "I have likewise baptized since Christ-
mas last about 130 white children, Two white adults and
seven black children in my own parish, and about 25 white
children and one Adult in St. John's Parish . . .
"P. S. The Rev. Mr. Stewart, the Society's Missionary
at Bath died last Spring and has left a widow and four
children, & his affairs in great confusion." 9
One of Governor Martin's first official acts, soon after
he arrived here, was to issue a proclamation August 30,
1771, for "encouragement to religion and virtue," calling
especially for the proper observance of the Sabbath. 10
That month Reed was seized with "bilious fever" and
was ill until Christmas. But, by being carried in a chair
instead of riding horseback as usual, he managed to
attend all his chapels, with the exception of one that was
on an extremely bad road. 11
Between midsummer and Christmas he baptized about
90 white and five colored children in this parish, and bap-
tized 25 white children in St. John's parish. He asked
leave to move elsewhere, by doctor's advice, or go north
for a few months or return to England to recuperate, if
he should have a return of the disorder, but he added that
he preferred to remain here. 12
As Assembly notation on December 23 stated that the
House had requested Reed to publish the sermon he had
preached the previous day at the church in New Bern.
He was allowed ten pounds to defray the printing cost. 13
The Rev. Dr. Joseph Pilmoor, Methodist divine,
preached here during the Christmas season of 1772. He
spoke of the town and its residents in a complimentary
84 CROWN OF LIFE
way, saying, "In all my travels through the world I have
met with none like the people of New Bern." 14
While governor, Martin was a zealous churchman,
though unable to accomplish as much as he would have
liked for the Established Church. He wrote the Bishop
of London : "I shall steadfastly labor for the better estab-
lishment of our clergy, and until they can be put upon
some more independent footing, I think it will not be good
policy to augment their number in this Province." 15
i Col. Rec, IX, 5, 9.
2 Ibid., 5.
3 Ibid., VIII, xlv.
4 Haywood, op. cit., pp. 18-20, 188. Cheshire, op. cit., pp. 76-80.
5 Col. Rec, VIII, 384, 479; IX, 5-7. St. Rec, XXIII, 831.
6 Col. Rec, VIII, 527.
7 ibid., IX, 6.
8 Ibid., 7, 251, 284-85.
9 Ibid., 6-7.
io Ibid., 28-29.
ii Ibid., 243-44.
12 Ibid., 244.
IB Ibid., 215, 219.
M The Journal of the Rev. Joseph Pihnoor, D. D. (1769-74.)
15 Col. Rec, IX, 306.
TOMLINSON ASSISTS RECTOR
Thomas Tomlinson, first professional teacher in the first
incorporated school of the province, assisted the Rev. Mr.
Reed with church duties for a number of years, and indeed
likely served as lay reader here for many years after
Governor Martin wrote from New Bern June 20, 1772,
to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in behalf
of Tomlinson, calling his "character and conduct not only
unimpeached but standing in the fairest light." 1
Tomlinson was reported by the Governor to continue
"to officiate ... as Reader of this Parish, while the
Rector is engaged near half the year in the remote parts
of his wide parish; and acquits himself so admirably in
that station that I cannot help wishing it may be seen
consistent with the pious and laudable views of the
Society to extend its bounty to him." 2
The local school evidently progressed satisfactorily for
perhaps eight years under Tomlinson's leadership, because
there is little in Colonial Records about him until 1771.
Reed wrote of him : "The first person I verily believe that
ever taught school in New Bern for any considerable time
without complaining of bad pay and very loudly; such
complaints I have seen nailed up at the church doors." 3
On February 15, 1772, 4 Reed wrote the Society that
Tomlinson had incurred the displeasure of two trustees by
reproving and suspending their children. On the previous
September 14, the minister declared, the school trustees
had met without notifying him and had accused Tomlinson
of neglecting school affairs. Eight trustees were present
at the meeting and voted seven to one against Tomlinson,
Reed reported. Two more trustees were elected, to fill
two vacancies. Mr. Parrot, the assistant to Tomlinson,
was elected schoolmaster but declined to take the place.
Reporting that he had tried in vain to get the trustees
and Tomlinson reconciled, Reed said he resigned from the
86 CROWN OF LIFE
board. Although he had been its main originator and
backer, he then suggested repeal of the local school act,
to take away so much power from the trustees. 5
Royal Governor Martin also sided with Tomlinson and
Reed against the trustees. He wrote in June from the
Palace at New Bern to the Bishop of London that the
trustees had most unjustly dismissed Tomlinson, taking
advantage of an Act of an Assembly, which gave this
power, and urging that the King disallow the school act. 6
Despite the pleas in his behalf, Tomlinson gave up the
school April 13, 1772, and later that year went to Rhode
Island for his health. The pupils were heavily in debt to
him. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel
granted him a gratuity of fifteen pounds, almost a year's
stipend. After a trip to England he returned to New
Bern and probably resided here many years. In 1789 he
was listed as a Christ Church warden. He did not con-
tinue his public school duties here, but likely served from
time to time at Christ Church. 7
Tomlinson is buried in Cedar Grove cemetery, at the
left of the main entrance walk near the Weeping Arch,
one of the oldest graves in the older part of the cemetery,
for he died two years after the burial ground had been
opened by Christ Church in 1800. His tombstone bears
this simple inscription:
"In Memory of Thomas Tomlinson who departed this
life on the 24th of September, 1802. Aged 70 years."
Reed also had his troubles with the colonists. In 1773
a bill was passed by the Assembly "to regulate the at-
tendance of the minister of Christ Church parish at the
parish church in the Town of New Bern and at the several
Chapels within said Parish." 8
Due to the increased population in New Bern, with
establishment of the governor's residence and courts
here, "the more regular attendance of the minister" was
said to be necessary for the church. Therefore, it was
enacted that the "minister shall not be absent from the
parish church, New Bern, more than six Sundays a
year ... on some days between March and December
TOMLINSON ASSISTS RECTOR 87
. . . with regular attendance at the several chapels twice
a year." 9
Although this may sound today like a rebuke, it was
explained at the time that it was intended to relieve Reed
of "insupportable toil and labour," in journeying so far
and often to the parish chapels, at his advancing age, as
well as to make his attendance more frequent at the local
church, "which was heretofore more than half the year
without a clergyman." 10
Mr. Reed wrote the S. P. G. in 1773 that the last Vestry
Act passed in 1768 would expire that year and a perma-
nent law was badly needed. "If it should miscarry," he
remarked, "I shall have very little hopes of ever seeing
the Church of England established in this Province." 11
On January 7, 1774, he seemed quite discouraged and
unhappy. He told the Society that until a Court law had
been settled there was no chance of getting a new Vestry
law. "Nor can taxes be collected for support of church
or State," he added. "I must ingenuously confess I am
heartily weary of living in this land of perpetual strife
and contention ; such I have found it by the experience of
upwards of twenty years. Without the benevolence of
the Society it would be quite intolerable." 12
Between December 21, 1773, and June 21, 1774, he
reported, he baptized 153 white children, seven colored
children and three white adults. The number of his com-
municants was said to be 168. 13
The March Assembly passed an act to amend and
further continue the Vestry Act for ten more years, the
rector reported on July 19. But this new bill related only
to the maintenance of the poor. For, establishment of
the Church of England, with the approach of the Revo-
lution, seemed to have gone forever in North Carolina. 14
This law, Reed commented, empowered vestries to build
workhouses for the poor and permitted keepers to inflict
corporal punishment on inmates behaving refractorily.
"I wish the amendment had been entirely omitted," he
wrote. "The very thought of whipping the aged and
infirm, though a little refractory, is shocking, and such
authority ought certainly to be vested in persons of more
88 CROWN OF LIFE
humanity than is generally to be found in the keepers of
i Col. Rec, IX, 304.
2 Ibid., 305.
3 Ibid., VII, 98.
4 Ibid., IX, pp. 238-44.
5 Ibid., 243.
sibid., pp. 305-7.
7 Ibid., pp. 317-18; X, 428. St. Rec, XXV, 35. Cheshire, p. 176.
8 Col. Rec,. IX, 443, 507-8, 583.
9 St. Rec, XXIII, 911.
io Col. Rec, IX, 658.
ii Ibid., 341.
12 Ibid., 815.
13 lUd., 1015.
14 IUd., pp. 1014-15.
15 Ibid., 1015.
THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD
DISESTABLISHMENT OF THE CHURCH
"The beginnings of the Establishment in North Carolina
were marked by the Cary Rebellion ; the struggles against
it were continuous, and the close of its career follows hard
on the War of the Regulation and the battle of Alamance,"
later wrote Stephen B. Weeks.
"There was less freedom of education in North Carolina
in 1773 than in 1673; a more rigid conformity was re-
quired in the province than in England. This was
injustice, and intolerance, persecution and tyranny. The
history of Colonial North Carolina is a continual struggle
against a government which sought to repress all aspi-
rations whether political, religious or intellectual ; for her
the War of Independence was not a Revolution only; it
brought with it a Reformation, and made possible a
Objections to the Established Church thus formed one
of the main conflicts between British rule and many of
the colonists. Governor Martin continued to do his duty
as he saw it by trying to strengthen the church. In 1774
he recommended to the Earl of Dartmouth "the ex-
pediency of giving greater encouragement to the Estab-
lishment of the Church of England in a political view
with respect to religion." 1
But, the rule of the church in North Carolina had then
passed. The Church Act of 1768 was re-enacted in 1774,
to remain in effect for ten years. Under that measure,
the governor could suspend a clergyman for misconduct,
but only until the Bishop of London could pass on the
case. 2 However, with the mounting rise of opposition to
English authority, this and other church laws were
90 CROWN OF LIFE
The first provincial convention, first popular legislative
assembly to be called and held in defiance of Royal protest
anywhere in America, met at the Palace in New Bern
August 25, 1774. 3 The second provincial convention was
held here the following April. 4
News came of the fights between patriots and English
at Lexington and Concord in New England, and local
disorders broke out. Governor Martin fled from New
Bern and took refuge on a British warship off Fort
Johnston near Wilmington. 5 He was the last of the Royal
Governors in North Carolina. Citizens set about forming
a State government.
Proceedings of the Committee of Safety at New Bern
July 21, 1775, tell of the observance of the day before as
"a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer to humble our-
selves before God," as ordered by the Continental Con-
gress. "Divine service was performed in the church and
a very animating and spirited discourse suitable to the
occasion was read by a member of the Committee, to a
very crowded audience." 6
A delegation from the Committee had been sent to Reed
prior to the day of prayer "to request and entreat him to
perform divine service in his church on the fast day and
deliver a sermon ; but their entreaties were vain, he giving
as a substantial reason, that as he was one of the mission-
aries of the honorable Society for Propagating the Gospel
in Foreign Parts, he should render himself obnoxious to
the Ministry and of course lose his mission." 7
For thus "deserting" his congregation, the special
committee passed a resolution "earnestly requesting" the
vestry to suspend Mr. Reed as rector of the church and
stop his salary. 8 The general Committee of Safety
unanimously confirmed this suspension. 9
The Rev. Daniel Earl wrote the S. P. G. from near
Edenton August 30 that "the situation of the clergy in
this part of the world is at present truly critical. Some of
them have been suspended, deprived of their Salaries . . .
on account of charges against them of opposing the
general cause of America." 10
THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 91
Reed wrote the S. P. G. Secretary February 2, 1776,
of "the difficulties I laboured under occasioned by the
present unnatural civil dissensions. To live peaceably
with all men, if possible, was my determined Resolution,
and after the Committee's suspension I lived very retired
for two or three months.
"In the meanwhile several intimations were given me,
that my attendance at church as usual would not be dis-
agreeable, and about the middle of November last
Providence presented an opportunity of decently closing
the breach, since that time I have done duty as usual and
flatter myself shall meet with no more interruptions. That
the speedy and merciful interposition of the King of
Kings may restrain the exorbitant passions of men, check
the desolating progress of civil discord and heal the
ghastly wounds of our country is the daily fervent prayer
"Your most obliged, etc.
"N. B. Any person prompted by curiosity to open this
Letter is desired to Seal it up again in a Cover and forward
Although the congregation seemed willing for Reed to
resume his pastoral duties, he did not have an easy time.
Naturally he remained a staunch loyalist, true to his King
and his native land, failing to follow the lead of the
patriotic New Bernians who began to call for freedom and
The Rev. L. C. Vass, D. D., Presbyterian minister and
historian, wrote here years later that boys of the town,
likely prompted by their elders, would beat drums at the
church door and shout "off with his head," when Reed
offered the usual prayers for the King. 12
Even as late as 1772 it had been legally decreed that
prayers for the Royal family be offered in all parish
churches, chapels and other places of divine worship in
this province. 13 So, Reed was obeying local law as well as
The Provincial Congress on May 1, 1776, passed a
resolution providing that vestrymen legally elected in
92 CROWN OF LIFE
each parish of the province on Easter Monday and taking
the oath recommended by the preceding congress should
be declared legally named and be authorized to proceed
with parochial business. Where no vestries had been
elected, the freeholders of the parish were called to meet
on the first Monday in July to elect vestrymen. Those
chosen were directed to qualify and take the oath, serving
until the next Easter Monday. 14
The church was permanently disestablished by the
State Constitution adopted in December, 1776, by the
Constitutional Convention at Halifax: 13
"No establishment of any one religious Church or
Denomination in this State in Preference to any other,
neither shall any person, on any pretence whatsoever, be
compelled to attend any Place of worship contrary to his
own Faith or Judgment, or be obliged to pay for the
purchase of any Glebe or the building of any House of
Worship, or for the maintenance of any Minister or
Ministry, contrary to what he believes right, or has volun-
tarily and personally engaged to perform, but all persons
shall be at Liberty to exercise their own mode of Worship.
Provided. That nothing herein contained shall be con-
strued to exempt Preachers of treasonable and seditious
Discourses, from legal trial and Punishment."' 16
To keep ministers out of politics, it was set forth in the
Constitution that no clergyman of any denomination
should be eligible to serve as a member of the House of
Commons. Senate or Council of State while acting as a
Another section read: "No person who shall deny the
Being of God. or the Truth of the Protestant religion, or
the divine Authority either of the Old or New Testament,
or shall hold religious Principles incompatible with the
Freedom and Safety of the State, shall be capable of
holding any Office or Place of Trust or Profit in the civil
Department within this State." 18
This seemed to limit office holding to Protestants, but
it was not strictly enforced. For, many offices were later
held by Catholics. William Gaston, for instance, held
important offices, though a devout Catholic.
THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 93
But, to protect the right for subsequent generations,
Gaston at the State Constitutional Convention in 1835 at
Raleigh insisted upon the changing of the word,
"Protestant," to "Christian." Since then he has been
known as "The Father of Religious Liberty in North
Carolina." 19 In 1868 the clause was further broadened so
as to debar from office only persons who denied "the
Being of Almighty God."-'
An ordinance of the 1776 convention at Halifax pro-
vided for the status quo of church property, all glebes,
lands and tenements, churches, chapels and houses re-
maining for the use of that religious denomination for
which purchased, built or devised.-' 1
All ministers of every denomination were then legally
granted the right to perform marriage ceremonies. 22 For
many years ministers of denominations other than the
Church of England had been denied this full privilege
during Colonial days.
Strange as it may seem, no guarantee of religious
liberty was contained in the Federal Constitution drafted
by the Constitutional Convention in 1787 at Philadelphia.
More criticism of this arose in North Carolina than
probably anywhere else, and many Carolina leaders in-
sisted that religious freedom be specifically promised in
The first ten amendments to the Federal Constitution
were adopted as the "Bill of Rights." The first amend-
ment still starts : "Congress shall make no law respecting
an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exer-
cise thereof." North Carolina accordingly ratified the
Constitution at Fayetteville November 21, 1789. 23
i Col. Rec. IX, 1086.
2 St. Rec. XXIII, 956.
3 Col. Rec, IX. 1041.
-4 Ibid., 1201-5.
5 Ibid., X, 41-50.
io Ibid., 23S.
ii Ibid., 42S.
i- Vass, op. cit.. p. 78. Whitford, op. tit., p. 206.
94 CROWN OF LIFE
13 Col. Rec, IX, 295.
14 Ibid., X, 553-54.
15 Ibid., 1006-13. St. Rec, XXIII, 980-84.
16 Section XXXIV.
17 Section XXXI.
is Section XXXII.
19 Connor, Judge Henry G., William Gaston, pp. 35-38. Creecy,
Richard Benbury, Grandfather's Tales of North Carolina History,
pp. 107, 119-22.
20 Article VI, Section 8.
21 St. Rec, XXIII, 986-87.
22 Ibid., XII, 726; XXIII, 997.
23 ibid., XXII, 47-49.
DEATH OF MR. REED
During the Colonial era from 1662 to 1775 only about
fifty Church of England clergymen had been in North
Carolina, 1 though for this entire time the denomination
was the legally-established church of the Province.
The Rev. Mr. Reed remained longer in New Bern than
any other Colonial minister stayed anywhere in North
Carolina; and his 24 years here constitute a longer local
service than that of any of the other 25 rectors of Christ
All three Royal Governors whom he served praised him
highly; and under difficult circumstances he managed to
get along fairly well during the early Revolutionary
period. Evidence points to the fact that he continued to
hold services at the church.
Described as an exceptionally fine gentleman and
Christian leader, he is considered one of the most out-
standing ministers in Colonial America. Of him it has
been said, "A very worthy man and the most influential
of the Episcopal ministers who labored in North Carolina
before the Revolution." 2
Zealous, accurate and well-informed, he took prominent
roles in educational and civic affairs as well as religious;
he did not confine his activities to New Bern, but preached
and worked at many outlying points in his wide Craven
County territory. Not only by members of his congre-
gations was he respected, but also by other denominations.
In his voluminous writings, still preserved in Colonial
Records, it is difficult to find any unkind words against
others, although sometimes his patience was sorely tried
by what he considered Colonial shortcomings and lack of
church support and religious interest.
On May 7, 1777, before the close of the Revolutionary
War, he passed away in New Bern. Hence, he was not
living to see the British take possession of the town
August 25, 1781. He likely retained his Royalist sym-
96 CROWN OF LIFE
pathies to the last, but he must have suspected that in
the end America would win its freedom and independence
from the Mother Country. Worry probably hastened his
His body was interred in the churchyard near Middle
Street. In recent years the brick mound had overgrown
with ivy. A fund for the purpose of properly marking
the grave was started by the late Mrs. Mary 0. Dunn
Windley, and additions were made by others. St. Ann's
chapter of the Woman's Auxiliary took over the project,
and in 1937 had the tomb rebricked and covered with a
long, flat, marble slab, bearing this inscription :
"In Memory of Rev. James Reed, first rector of Christ
Church. Died 1777. Missionary S. P. G. Preacher,
Teacher, Advocate of Free Schools."
Dying intestate, without children, only half of his
estate was legally allotted to his widow, Hannah Reed,
under an Assembly Act of 1756 ; but it was argued that all
his property had been acquired through his marriage, so
under a special Act in 1780 all his personal estate was
allowed to go to the widow. 3
As Mrs. Reed owned land in the colony, she was per-
haps a native, lending credence to the theory that the
minister did not marry her until he moved to America.
She may have been his second wife, as he is said to have
brought a family with him from England. Little is
known about her, but she likely assisted her husband
materially in his church and educational work.
Reed had not been paid regularly by the church, and he
seemed generous with the little money that he received,
as evidenced by his willingness to pledge half his year's
salary for the purchase of bricks for the local schoolhouse
chimneys. So, he could not have saved much money from
his meager earnings. However, he evidently was not ex-
travagant. The Rev. Mr. Stewart wrote of him, likely
intending it as a compliment, that he was "a parsimonious
saving man." 4
After his death it is probable that Tomlinson preached
from time to time at Christ Church. There may have been
other local lay readers as well as visiting ministers. For
DEATH OF MR. REED 97
about eight years, so far as can be ascertained, there was
no regular rector.
Churches and congregations were, of course, adversely
affected by the Revolutionary War. Many clergymen, of
English birth and sympathy, returned to England. Some
continued their activities in this region, as the Rev.
Messrs. Pettigrew, Cuppels, Blount, Earl, and Taylor. 5
But, for some years following the war the church and,
in fact, all denominations remained weak, poor and
The Church of England was especially hurt by the
Revolution, because so many intense patriots of other
denominations regarded it as "British" and in their
political opposition to the Crown they also objected to the
There was no Episcopal Bishop in America after the
Revolutionary War. In 1783 in Maryland was chosen the
name, "The Protestant Episcopal Church of Maryland,"
and this main name was adopted by the General Conven-
tion, which in 1785-86 framed a Constitution, revised the
prayer book and named Bishops, even prior to the adoption
of the Federal political Constitution. 7
i Vass, op. cit., p. 29.
2 Reed was praised by Weeks, Hawks, Vass, Cheshire and other
church historians. This quotation is from a Baptist historian, Dr.
G. W. Paschal.
3 St. Rec, XXIV, 332-33.
4 Col. Rec, VII, 493.
5 Vass, 78, 196.
6 Ibid., 78.
7 McConnell, op. cit., pp. 220-21, 240-53. Other Church histories.
THE REV. LEONIDAS CUTTING
The second regularly-commissioned rector of Christ
Church parish to serve for any length of time was the
Rev. Dr. Leonidas (Leonard) Cutting, " a man of piety
and learning and of high reputation in the Church." 1
Rector here from 1785 to 1792, 2 a worthy successor for
"Parson" Reed, he was instrumental in helping arrange
the first steps that led to the provincial organization of
the church, with naming of the "First Bishop of North
Those post-war years were extremely difficult ones in
many respects. Disease had caused many deaths, besides
the war casualties. Smallpox had been so violent here in
1779 that it prevented the regular session of the General
Assembly at New Bern. 3 Court records on May 15 show
that the section was so "generally infested with smallpox,
Court ordered all business continued to the next term." 4
Another epidemic came during the Summer of 1781. 5
Yellow fever is said to have caused the deaths of Mr. and
Mrs. John Wright Stanly in 1789 during one of the
epidemics of that dread affliction.
Accordingly, for this and other reasons it was hard to
build the church to its former importance. As an illus-
tration, there was a law passed Dec. 29, 1785, imposing a
fine of five pounds on any person trying to obstruct the
ways leading to houses of public worship. 7
The years of Dr. Cutting's ministry were important in
the political history of America. In 1787 the Federal
Constitution was drafted. Two of the signers were New
Bernians, frequently attending Christ Church — Richard
Dobbs Spaight and William Blount. George Washington
was inaugurated in 1789 as the first President of the
United States. He visited New Bern and was gaily enter-
tained here April 20-22, 1791. 8
Many prominent laymen resided in New Bern during
those stirring times to help Dr. Cutting improve church
THE REV. LEON I DAS CUTTING 99
and civic conditions. Recognizing the need for better
care of the poor and aged of the community, leaders had
the State legislature pass a law in 1787 to allow Craven
County to conduct a lottery to raise money for a County
Home. Managers appointed were Spaight, Stanly, John
Hawks, Abner Neale and Spyers Singleton. 9
On January 6 of that year the lot on the southeastern
corner at Middle and Johnson Streets which had been pro-
vided for the residence of the Episcopal rector was turned
over to the school trustees. 10
The public school here had been reorganized in 1784,
following the Revolutionary War interruptions. An Act
of the General Assembly of the independent State gave it
the name of the New Bern Academy, and appointed the
following nine outstanding members on its self-perpet-
uating school board: 11
Richard Caswell, who had served four terms as
Governor and later was to serve three more years, longer
than any other Governor under the independent State;
Former Governor Abner Nash, important leader, who is
buried on his estate, "Pembroke," across Trent River;
Richard Dobbs Spaight, who served 1792-95 as the first
native-born Governor of North Carolina and who was also
a Member of Congress as well as signer of the Federal
Constitution, buried on his plantation, "Clermont," across
William Blount, who signed the Constitution, then later
became Governor of the Territory South of the River
Ohio and Senator from Tennessee ; John Wright Stanly,
illustrious patriot, who lost fourteen privateers during the
Revolution and is said to have lent about $80,000 to help
Gen. Nathaniel Greene win the war, buried in Christ
John Sitgreaves, Federal judge and a member of the
Continental Congress; Gen. William Bryan, who served
as Craven County sheriff, member of the Committee of
Safety, delegate to three provincial conventions and the
State Constitutional convention, representative in the
House of Commons, and Christ Church warden, besides
100 CROWN OF LIFE
taking a gallant role in the Revolutionary war, especially
at the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge ;
Dr. William McClure, the only surgeon in his Revolu-
tionary regiment ; and Spyers Singleton, scholarly soldier,
who played a vital role in the famed case of Bayard versus
Singleton here in 1786, when it was held for the first
recorded time in America that a legislature is limited in
power by the Constitution. 12
Caswell died soon after being elected Speaker of the
State House in 1789. The Assemblymen attended his
funeral in a body. He was buried near Kinston with
Masonic honors, having been second Grand Master of
A funeral oration for "The most Worshipful and Honor-
able Major General Richard Caswell, Grand Master of
Masons of North Carolina," was delivered in Christ
Church, New Bern, on Sunday, November 29, before St.
John's Lodge, No. 2, A. F. & A. M., of this city. 13
The address was printed here by Francis Xavier Martin,
who had come to town as a penniless young Frenchman
about 1782. After the death of James Davis in 1785
Martin became New Bern's chief printer and editor, and
later one of North Carolina's main historians. He was
appointed a Federal Judge of the Territory of Mississippi,
and then served as the first Attorney General and after-
wards as Chief Justice of Louisiana, dying in that
Southern State as a wealthy miser.
As the local church was thus the scene of many public
gatherings and as the congregation included so many
prominent statesmen and other local leaders, it was
natural that under Dr. Cutting's inspiration the members
should begin to plan for a larger edifice to replace the
small Colonial church on the corner of the extensive parish
In his diary William Attmore reported in 1787, "There
is a small church here with a square tower, Cupola and
Bell and it is the only place of Worship in the Town." 14
Looking towards the erection of a new church in the
future, a State Act was passed in 1789 to allow acceptance
THE REV. LEON I DAS CUTTING 101
of donations and bequests for building an Episcopal
church and supporting a minister. It was enacted that
"John Fonveille, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Richard
Nixon, Isaac Guion, Thomas Tomlinson, John Daves,
Thomas Haslen, David Witherspoon and William Good,
Esquires, be appointed churchwardens to receive and
recover such subscriptions." They were "empowered to
prosecute in law or equity against any person or persons
who may refuse to give up such subscriptions." 15
Under the act, the congregation was authorized to con-
vene in the church on the first Monday after Easter and
elect seven persons to serve for three years as church-
wardens, and thereafter to meet on the same day every
Much time was required to get the money and erect the
new church, however. It was not consecrated until
February 1, 1824. 16
i Cheshire, the Rt. Rev. Joseph B., Decay and Revival, (1800-
1830), published in Sketches of Church History in North Carolina,
3 St. Rec, XIII, 792; XIV, 66.
4 Extract from Court Records of Craven County, dated May 15,
1779, reprinted in St. Rec, XIV, 302.
5 St. Rec, XV, 443, 600.
6 Whitford, op. cit., 173. Year of death from tombstones in Christ
Church yard, and from Stanly's will probated here in June, 1789,
Craven County Records of Wills, Book A, pp. 198-99.
7 St. Rec, XXIV, 746-47.
8 President Washington's Diaries, 1791-99, transcribed and com-
piled by Joseph A. Hoskins, pp. 20-22. Henderson, Dr. Archibald,
Washington's Southern Tour, 1791, pp. 84-101.
9 St. Rec, XXIV, pp. 821-23.
io Ibid., 825.
ii Ibid., 607-9.
12 North Carolina Court Records, May term, 1786, at New Bern,
I N. C, p. 42 (5).
13 St. Rec, XXI, 221-22. Masonic minute books of St. John's Lodge.
Original records of the address in pamphlet form.
14 Journal of a Tour to North Carolina, 1787, James Sprunt His-
torical Publications, Vol. XVII, No. 2.
is St. Rec, XXV, 35-36.
is The original certificate of consecration, in large frame, hangs in
the vestibule of Christ Church.
STEPS TOWARD ORGANIZATION
The first movement to reorganize the Episcopal church
in North Carolina after the Revolutionary War was
started by the Right Reverend William White, D. D., of
Pennsylvania, who in October, 1789, wrote to Governor
Samuel Johnston, of "Hayes," at Edenton, relative to a
church revival in this State. 1
The American Prayer Book adapting the ancient liturgy
to the new republic had been adopted by the General
Convention at Philadelphia, and diocesan organizations
were being perfected in various States. 2
Governor Johnston felt that he could not officially call
the clergy of one denomination to meet, so he referred the
matter to the Rev. Charles Pettigrew, rector of St. Paul's
Church, Edenton. Pettigrew wrote to Dr. Cutting at
New Bern, the Rev. Mr. Wilson of Martin County, the
Rev. Mr. Blount at Tar River, and others, asking them to
meet at Tarboro on the second Thursday of the following
Dr. Cutting also heard from Bishop White, expressing
pleasure at the convention plans; and he received word,
too, from the Committee of Correspondence, Philadelphia,
as to union in the General Convention of the church. 4
That the ministers in those days did not even know the
names of all other Episcopal rectors in North Carolina is
proved by the letters exchanged by Pettigrew and Cut-
ting. Naming a few clergymen, the former wrote as
follows, relative to the proposed first State Episcopal
"These are all the clergy of the Episcopal order that I
have heard of in the State. Should you know or hear of
any to the Southward of New Berne, I must request the
favor of you to acquaint them with the matter . . .
"I presume I need not inform you, that there has been
a Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Clergy from the
United States, at Philadelphia, from the 8th of July to the
STEPS TOWARD ORGANIZATION 103
8th of August last, and that they have appointed in one of
their Canons such a meeting again on the first Tuesday in
August, 1792, and successively on that day in every third
year afterwards." 5
According to Dr. Cutting's reply November 28, 1789,
conditions in the local church at the time must have been
quite discouraging. After saying that he did not know
with certainty where any of the clergy dwelt except
Blount, he commented,
"How it may be in other Parishes or Congregations in
this State I know not ; but here by the Expiration of an
Old Law a few years ago, we have no Church Wardens,
Vestry-men, nor any officer to take any charge or care of
the Church. Whatever meetings therefore we may hold
in the church will be spontaneous, unbacked by authority ;
but which cannot be remedied without an application to
Concluding, Cutting said he would "diligently enquire
whether there are any of our Episcopal brethren to the
Southward of New Bern." He reported he had received
a letter, urging North Carolina to join the General
The first Protestant Episcopal convention of clergy and
laity of North Carolina was held June 5, 1790, at Tarboro,
following these advance preparations. The Constitution
of the General Church adopted the previous year at
Philadelphia was approved. 7
"Parson" Pettigrew wrote to Bishop White the day
after the convention that the only persons attending the
meeting besides himself were one clergyman (probably
the Rev. James L. Wilson) and two laymen, Dr. John
Leigh and William Clements, of Tarboro, "of distinguished
merit and reputation." Pettigrew acted as chairman of
this first convention ; Clements as secretary. 8
A small attendance was also reported for the second
convention held later that year, November 12-13, at
Tarboro. The Rev. Mr. Pettigrew, the Rev. Mr. Wilson
and the Rev. Dr. Micklejohn, of the clergy, and Dr. Leigh,
William McKenzie and Joseph Leech, of the laity, were
named delegates to the General Convention to be held at
104 CROWN OF LIFE
New York in 1792. Colonel Leech, Mayor of New Bern,
was also named on the standing committee for the State. 9
Another meeting was called for Tarboro in October,
1791, but there were not enough delegates there to trans-
act business. 10
i Pettigrew, the Rev. William S.. The Conventions of 1790, '93
and '94 and the Bishop-Elect, published in Sketches of Church His-
tory in North Carolina, edited by Bishop Cheshire, p. 1S2.
- McConnell. op. cit.. pp. 259-63.
3 Pettigrevr, op. cit.. pp. 1S2-S3.
5 Ibid., 1S3.
6 Pettigrew Papers, 17S9. Also, Pettigrevr, op. cit.. 184.
" The Proceedings of the First Convention of the Clergy (and
Laity; held at Taroorough. in pamphlet edited by Bishop Cheshire,
The First Effort to Organize the Church in North Carolina, or The
Early Conventions, pp. 9-11.
* Pettigrew, Conventions, p. 1S5.
9 Minutes of the convention from the North Carolina Chronicle or
Fayetteville Gazette, of date November 22, 1790, published in Ches-
hire's The Early Conventions, pp. 13-15.
io Pettigrew, op. cit.. 1SS.
THE REV. SOLOMON HALLING
One result of the 1790 church gatherings at Tarboro
was that Dr. Solomon Hailing, of New Bern, was recom-
mended for Holy Orders by the State Standing Committee
and was ordained in 1792 by the Rt. Rev. James Madison,
D. D., first Bishop of Virginia. In 1792 he succeeded Dr.
Cutting as rector of Christ Church here, the third regular
Dr. Hailing was a native of Pennsylvania. 2 Educated
as a physician, he served to the close of the Revolutionary
War as surgeon of the Fourth North Carolina Regiment. 3
Likely he came to New Bern as a teacher at the New Bern
Academy. He has been described as "a most exemplary
man, and the most zealous clergyman of his time in the
State." 4 He acted as rector here until 1795 when he
moved to Wilmington. 5
Even before his ordination, Dr. Hailing had spoken and
preached in New Bern. A pamphlet printed at New Bern
gives his "discourse delivered before St. John's Lodge of
Masons, No. 2, on the Festival of St. John the Baptist,
June 24, 1789." He often delivered sermons and orations
for the Masons, according to the ancient Masonic minute
books still extant. In 1791-92 he was Worshipful Master
of the local lodge, which he also served at different times
in other capacities. 6
Hailing was a member of the Masonic committee that
delivered an address of welcome to George Washington
during the first President's visit here in April, 1791. "
Washington is said to have worshipped in Christ Church
while here, as President James Monroe and Vice President
John C. Calhoun are reported to have also done during a
It is an interesting fact that William Joseph Williams,
who in 1794 at Philadelphia painted the celebrated pastel
known as the Masonic portrait of Washington, later moved
to New Bern, died here in 1823, and is buried in Cedar
106 CROWN OF LIFE
Grove cemetery. The original portrait, the only authentic
picture of the first President from life in Masonic regalia
still in existence, now hangs in the old Masonic lodge
room of the Alexandria-Washington Lodge, No. 22, at
Christ Church was still the only house of worship in
New Bern in 1792. Jedidiah Morse described it then, in
his American Geography, as follows: "The Episcopal
church is a small brick building, with a bell. It is the only
house for public worship in the place." 8
It was Halling's purpose at that period to do all he
could to further the cause of church union and the elec-
tion of Mr. Pettigrew as the first Bishop of North
Carolina. He did his best to arouse the North Carolina
Episcopalians towards these two ends.
As to the naming of a bishop, Dr. Leigh, eminent
physician, politician and churchman, had written to
Pettigrew March 29, 1791:
"I think it is something which may be deferred for
sometime yet; but should it become necessary, I see no
reason why we cannot appoint or recommend one of those
now in the State. If the appointment of a Bishop will
tend in any degree to raise once more the fallen state of
our Church, I am clearly convinced that it should be done.
"This is the object to which the attention of the Clergy,
as well as the Laity, should be directed. Every exertion
is now called for aloud. The enemies of our Church, who
are many, wish its destruction. Religion of whatever
kind can only be sustained by the zealous exertions of its
supporters. I fear that the mode adopted by our last
Convention will be productive of no good. No subscrip-
tions or donations have yet reached me, nor have I heard
of any one forwarding, although I had reason to expect
A third church convention was held at Tarboro
November 21, 1793. Six persons attended, three ministers
and three laymen, one of each being present from Christ
Church: the Rev. Mr. Wilson, of Williamston, who pre-
sided ; Mr. Clements, who served as secretary ; Dr. Hailing,
who also took a leading role; the Rev. Mr. Gurley, of
THE REV. SOLOMON HALLING 107
Murf reesboro ; F. Green, of Craven County; and Dr.
Recommendation was made that a convention of church
people in the State be called for the last Wednesday in
May, 1794, at Tarboro, to form a Constitution and elect a
Dr. Hailing wrote Mr. Pettigrew December 16, 1793,
that there were too few at the gathering to choose a
bishop. 10 Mr. Pettigrew was probably too ill at that time
to attend. Hailing was strongly in favor of Pettigrew's
election as bishop. He added:
"I . . . have declared myself a volunteer in this sacred
cause ... I believe it will be the general wish, that you
should be elected to the Episcopacy of North Carolina.
My exertions shall not be spared on this occasion — and
you must not refuse. Consider it a call from Heaven, and
reflect on your former vows. Excuse me if I speak freely.
My whole soul is engaged in this important business.
May GOD in mercy for our country preserve you to over-
look and bless His little flock. This is the ardent wish and
prayer of my dear and Rev. Sir, your unworthy brother
in our LORD JESUS." 11
Paying tribute to Dr. Halling's zealous work for the
church, Bishop Cheshire wrote, "It was by his earnest
assiduity that the Convention of 1794 was gotten to-
gether. If the other ministers had had his enterprising
and courageous spirit we should have had another tale to
Dr. Hailing left New Bern in 1795, accepting a call as
rector of St. James Church, Wilmington. He also acted
as principal of the Wilmington Academy. In 1809 he
moved to the Diocese of South Carolina, where he "con-
tinued the same course of devout faithfulness, and
endeared himself to all his brethren in that new home.
He died in 1813, much honored and lamented by the
Bishop and the Clergy of that Diocese." 13
i Cheshire, The Early Conventions, p. 15.
2 Cheshire, Decay and Revival, p. 258.
3 Henderson, op. cit., p. 94.
4 Cheshire, Decay and Revival, 258.
108 CROWN OF LIFE
6 Minutes of St. John's Lodge.
" Masonic Lodge minutes. Report of a lodge meeting on April 29,
1791. Masonic minute books and pages are not numbered.
8 Morse, Jedidiah, American Universal Geography, Vass, op. cit.,
9 Pettigrew, Conventions, pp. 187-88.
io Cheshire, The Early Conventions, pp. 17-18.
ii Pettigrew, op. cit., 190-1.
12 Cheshire, Decay and Revival, 258.
13 ibid., 261.
FIRST BISHOP ELECTED FOR NORTH
Largely due to Dr. Halling's efforts, Mr. Pettigrew was
elected the first Bishop of North Carolina at the conven-
tion held in Tarboro May 28-31, 1794. 1
Dr. Hailing and Dr. Isaac Guion represented Christ
Church at this convention. The latter presided over
several sessions. The former served with the Rev. Mr.
Wilson and Robert White of Tarboro in drafting the
Constitution ratified by the delegates. 2
More than a year later, on June 9, 1795, Mr. Pettigrew
wrote to Bishop White, telling of the North Carolina
church meeting and his election as bishop on a vote by
ballot. He told of the Constitution adopted, and the plan
to unite with the General Convention. Besides his
personal recommendation from the State gathering, he
said he could add a testimonial from the Edenton district,
where he had lived and preached for twenty years. 3
Bishop White referred him to the convention to be held
at Philadelphia in September, 1795, "this body being
clothed with authority to decide whether it would be
willing to accept a recommendation drawn by a committee
appointed by the North Carolina convention." 4
Because of the distances at which the clergy and laity
lived from him and the lack of transportation and com-
munication facilities, Pettigrew was said to have been
denied the personal acquaintanceships which would have
justified use of the regular form of recommendation pre-
scribed by the General Convention. An informal recom-
mendation had instead been drafted, to fit the local
Pettigrew expected to attend the General Convention,
and had it met as scheduled, he very likely would have
been consecrated as the first Bishop of North Carolina.
Five days prior to the time of the meeting he set out
1 10 CROWN OF LIFE
towards Philadelphia, but he found so many cases of
yellow fever at Norfolk that he returned home. There
was so much yellow fever in the country that the con-
vention did not meet. 6
The next General Convention was to have met in Phila-
delphia during September, 1798, but it also failed to
convene, due to the fact that the epidemic of yellow fever
was still raging. Pettigrew was notified of the cancel-
lation of the gathering."
A special convention was called for June, 1799, at
Philadelphia ; and the next regular convention met in
1801 at Trenton, N. J. But, because of his poor health,
Mr. Pettigrew was unable to attend either one. For years
he suffered from tuberculosis. 8
Without ever being consecrated Bishop, Mr. Pettigrew
continued to serve his parishioners through the Lake
Scuppernong section. Refusing to accept compensation,
and probably acting also as doctor and teacher since he
had formerly been head of the Edenton Academy, he
toiled valiantly in home mission work.
From the beginning of his ministry in 1775, as a
missioner in the Edenton region and then as the Rev. Mr.
Earl's successor at St. Paul's Church there, Mr. Pettigrew
served in the Albemarle region until his death in 1807.
The funeral was conducted from St. Paul's Church by
the Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, a Presbyterian minister,
who later assumed charge of the New Bern Academy.
While teaching in the Edenton Academy, 1808-11, he also
was paid for "delivering lectures to the students on the
Sabbath." At that time there was no rector at St. Paul's,
there were no other Presbyterians in Edenton and about
the same men acted as Academy trustees and church
Originally called Pettigrew's Chapel, a church that
came to be known as St. David's parish was erected in
1803 on "Parson" Pettigrew's plantation, "Belgrade,"
near Creswell, as a center for his work through Tyrrell
and Washington Counties. It is still standing.
As a feature of the new Pettigrew Memorial State Park
in that area, his home, built 1796-98, with quaint windows
FIRST BISHOP ELECTED FOR NORTH CAROLINA 1 1 1
and double chimneys, has been recently restored. Also
reconditioned is the old cemetery where members of the
family are buried, including Parson Pettigrew's famous
grandson, Gen. James Johnston Pettigrew, son of a Miss
Shepard of New Bern, and the youngest general in the
Confederate Army, who lost his life at Gettysburg.
The parson's epitaph reads : "Sacred to the memory of
the Rev. Charles Pettigrew, late minister of the Protestant
Episcopal Church and Bishop-Elect of the State of North
Carolina, who after a life devoted to the cause of religion
and virtue fell asleep in Jesus on the 8th of April, A. D.
1807, Aged 63 Years." 9
Thus failed the first efforts to obtain an Episcopal
Bishop for North Carolina. The late lamented Rt. Rev.
Joseph Blount Cheshire wrote that the prejudice against
the British before, during and after the Revolution re-
acted against their Established Church in the New World,
but that other causes also contributed to the "lethargy"
among the scattered congregations.
The previous governmental patronage left bad effects,
he said, and time was necessary to overcome them.
Bishop Cheshire referred to the period as the "death-
struggle of the old Colonial system." 10
i Cheshire, The Early Conventions, p. 24.
2 Ibid., pp. 21-29.
3 Pettigrew, Conventions, pp. 193-95.
4 Ibid., pp. 195-96. Pettigrew Papers.
5 Cheshire, The Early Conventions, pp. 28-29. Pettigrew, Con-
6 Pettigrew, op. (At., 196.
9 Data on the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew came from many sources, in-
cluding various references in Colonial Records, but chiefly from
Cheshire's Sketches, pp. 215-16, 219-22, 229-40, 256, which contain
accounts of his life by his descendants, Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew,
and the Rev. William S. Pettigrew.
10 Cheshire, Decay and Revival, 243-53.
THE REV. THOMAS P. IRVING
For the next twenty-two years, from 1796 to 1818,
local schoolmasters served as rectors and assistant rectors
of Christ Church, again proving the close relation and
interdependence of school and church in this community.
The Rev. Thomas Pitt Irving, a native of Somerset
County, Maryland, became principal of the New Bern
Academy in 1793, following his graduation from Prince-
ton in 1789. He held a degree of Master of Arts, and was
an exceptionally brilliant and versatile man. 1
Following his ordination to the diaconate by Bishop
White in 1796, Irving assumed charge of Christ Church
parish, in addition to his school duties. His seventeen
years as local rector constitute the second longest term
of service, next to that of Mr. Reed.
During Mr. Irving's twenty years' residence in New
Bern it was his misfortune to witness three major
disasters: the burning of the old schoolhouse where he
taught, the burning of historic Tryon Palace, where he
then resided and taught school, and another serious
epidemic of yellow fever.
After having been used for about 28 years, the old
school building was destroyed by fire in 1795, said to have
been due to the carelessness of a singing class there. 2 By
permission of the legislature, the local school was then
held in the Palace, 3 no longer serving for governmental
purposes since New Bern was not retained as the capital
of the State.
Irving and his family also made their home in the
Palace. Under the Council Chamber in the main portion
of the three-building edifice, they kept wood and hay in
the cellar. On the night of February 27, 1798, a Negro
woman went to look for eggs in the hay. With her she
carried a lighted pine-wood torch. Some sparks fell on
the dry hay. A blaze ensued. Unfortunately a hole was
cut in the floor above to pour water on the flames. It
THE REV. THOMAS P. IRVING 113
acted as a flue and the fire became uncontrollable. The
central structure was entirely destroyed. 4
The minister toiled incessantly during the yellow fever
epidemic later that year. 5 He conducted the funeral
services for practically all the victims. Scores of in-
habitants died of the disease. Records show that a pall-
bearer would often be the next one carried to a grave. 6
So many persons succumbed that at night trenches
were dug in the Episcopal church yard in a line near the
adjoining property to the northwest on Middle Street,
and the bodies were buried there indiscriminately. 7 It
was probably some of these hurriedly-interred corpses
that were unearthed a few years ago when excavations
were made for the foundations of the parish house
These numerous burials in the church yard, already
well filled with graves, perhaps formed the main reasons
why the church opened Cedar Grove cemetery in 1800.
This cemetery was transferred in 1854 to the city by the
church. 8 An old Indian burying ground is said to have
been originally in the hilly part of this cemetery property.
A Mason himself, Irving usually held funeral services
for Masonic brethren from the Episcopal Church, except
when they were too numerous during epidemics. Fre-
quently he composed original odes befitting the character
of the deceased. 9
The memorial sermon for Gov. Richard Dobbs Spaight
was to have been preached by Irving, after the statesman
had been mortally wounded in a duel here on September
5, 1802, with John Stanly, son of John Wright Stanly and
State legislator and Congressman of note. 10 As illness
prevented him from delivering this memorial, he had his
prepared address printed in part in The Raleigh
Governor Spaight was a communicant and vestryman
of Christ Church. He had served as chief executive when
the University was formally opened January 15, 1795, at
Chapel Hill, and was present for that occasion, although
it was almost a month later when the first student en-
rolled for this first existing State University to open its
114 CROWN OF LIFE
doors. Women in New Bern and Raleigh presented
mathematical instruments to the institution. Mrs.
Spaight is said to have been the first woman to attend a
University commencement. She was Miss Mary Leech,
daughter of Col. Joseph Leech, of New Bern.
A poem used to close Irving's eloquent tribute was
copied for the epitaph on Spaight's tombstone across
Trent River. Adapted from the ode composed in 1746 by
William Collins (1720-1756), it follows: 12
"So sleeps the brave — he sinks to rest
With all his country's wishes blessed.
When Spring, with dewy fingers cold,
Returns to deck his hallowed mould,
She there shall find a sweeter sod
Than fancy's feet have ever trod.
By fairy hands his knell is rung,
By forms unseen his dirge is sung,
There honor comes, a pilgrim grey,
To bless the turf that wraps his clay,
And freedom shall a while repair
And dwell a weeping hermit there."
Spaight's ancestors had long been active members of
Christ Church. He was born in New Bern March 25,
1758, the son of Richard Spaight, a grand-nephew of
Royal Governor Dobbs, and Elizabeth Wilson Spaight,
daughter of Mary Vail Jones Wilson Moore. 13
This maternal grandmother, Madame Moore, was a
great social leader of the old days. She resided at Cler-
mont, which once consisted of 2,500 acres. Three times
she married — first for position, then for money, and
finally for love.
Madame Moore is said to have owned a stall in Christ
Church twice as large as any of the other stalls. President
Washington and President Monroe are reported to have
worshipped there, as well as Sir William Draper, "Con-
queror of Manila" and other visitors. 14 When she came
to town from her estate, she traveled in an elegantly-
equipped large rowboat, manned by six oarsmen in
handsome liveries. It is still rumored that some of her
money is buried at Clermont.
THE REV. THOMAS P. IRVING 115
Besides being a talented writer and orator, Mr. Irving
was particularly interested in dramatics and ranks as one
of the pioneer amateur dramatists and producers in
North Carolina. His school was one of the first to present
dramas as public programs.
On December 23, 1793, New Bern Academy students
gave "a dramatic piece in ridicule of scholastic pedantry,"
followed by an oration by William Gaston on the blessings
of American independence. The Commencement program
included an original skit written and produced by Irving
and a play, "Mock Doctor or Dumb Lady Cured." 15
As a dramatist, as well as a prominent Mason, Irving
probably had much to do with encouraging St. John's
Masonic lodge to build the large Masonic temple and
theatre that still stands here, the oldest theatre still in
regular use in America.
A second charter obtained by the lodge was dated
January 26, 1795, the organization then being listed as
Number 3 instead of 2, and activities were resumed.
Professor Irving was a main leader. He served as Wor-
shipful Master and in many other official capacities,
including chaplain. 16
Masonic meetings were held regularly at Tryon's
Palace. After the Palace was burned, the Masons planned
to erect a building of their own. Irving was the orator
on the occasion of the laying of its foundation stone April
15, 1801. The structure was completed by 1808. 17
Undoubtedly Irving also had much to do with the con-
struction of the school building that replaced the former
schoolhouse that had been burned on the present campus.
The new one was finished in 1806, and is now the oldest
school building still in use in North Carolina. 18
That period was one of the greatest building eras in
the history of the town. Many church leaders were
among the numerous citizens erecting fine homes in the
city or the surrounding sections during those first years
of the nineteenth century. The Episcopal church was
still the only house of worship here at the opening of that
116 CROWN OF LIFE
Church and secular music was also encouraged by Mr.
Irving during his local residence. He must have been a
talented composer as well as poet, for his odes were set
to music at various times, as reported in the Masonic
minutes. One entry tells of the singing of an anthem that
he had set to music for a special Masonic program. 19
Another entry relates that the minister conducted a
service for St. John's Day June 24, 1798, at Christ Church,
at which he preached "an elegant discourse," on the
theme, "Stand still, brethren, and consider the wonderfull
works of God," as taken from Job. 37 :6-14. As a musical
feature, "a Masonic ode composed by Chaplain T. P.
Irving was sung by many ladies and gentlemen in a
masterly manner." 20
From the use and names of his whipping rods, Mr.
Irving was known to the school boys as "Tippoo Sahib"
and "The Great Mogul." 21 Although recognized as a
teacher and preacher of much ability, he was considered
by some citizens to be "cold and perfunctory." 22
Yet, this seems hardly a fair characterization for any-
one who could send downtown to buy commonplace
supplies in the following poetic manner: 23
"Palace, New Bern, Nov. 11, 1797.
"Messrs. George and Thomas Ellis:
"I send you, sirs, a little boy
To buy me neither robe nor toy,
Nor rum, nor sugar, nor molasses,
Coffee, tea, nor empty glasses;
Nor linen cloths, nor beau cravats,
Nor handkerchiefs, nor beaver hats ;
Nor anything, or less or more
Of all that constitutes your store,
Save only this, a noon-day taper,
And one thing more, a quire of paper.
Of these pray send the exact amount,
And charge them both to my account;
And rest assured my prayer shall be,
Kind sirs, for your prosperitee.
"Thos. P. Irving."
THE REV. THOMAS P. IRVING 117
To give an idea of the local school at that period, Mr.
Irving taught three classes in 1793. The first class
studied the three "R's" — reading, writing and arithmetic ;
the second, "Mathematics, in the various branches of that
science" ; and the third, "the dead languages." 24
Until about 1813 he stayed in New Bern, as rector and
instructor, then he went to Hagerstown, Md. 25 There he
died early in 1818, while principal of the Hagerstown
While here, he taught many local young men who
became outstanding citizens of the State, thus reflecting
credit on his remarkable store of diversified knowledge as
well as on his high character and example.
Among his students were William Gaston, noted orator,
State Supreme Court Justice and composer of the State
anthem ; Dr. Francis Lister Hawks, Episcopal minister,
educator and historian ; the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks, Bishop
of Missouri; Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., who served as
Governor, 1835-36, with his father being the only instance
of father and son becoming Governors of North Carolina ;
and George E. Badger, Superior Court Judge, United
States Senator and Secretary of the Navy.
i Cheshire, Sketches, 258-59. That Mr. Irving was in New Bern
in 1793 is proved by an advertisement in the North Carolina Gazette
here, dated October 12, 1793.
2Whitford, op. cit., 202.
3 Vass, op. cit., 92-93.
4 Ibid., 93. Masonic minutes, 1798, give date of fire.
& Ibid., 204.
s Marble tablet at the top of the entrance arch at the cemetery
gives these dates.
9 Masonic minutes mention such odes at different times.
io Original correspondence between Spaight and Stanly prior to
their duel is in the Hawks collection at the New York Historical
Society Library, to which previous reference has been made. These
letters give exact dates and details of the controversy,
ii Andrews, Alexander B., Richard Dobbs Spaight, pp. 118-20.
12 Andrews, op. cit., 120. Governor Spaight and his son, Governor
Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., are buried in the family burial plot on
their old plantation, "Clermont." This poem appears on his tomb-
stone. Not far distant is the tomb of New Bern's third Governor,
Abner Nash, on his plantation, "Pembroke," along the Trent River.
13 Most of the information on Spaight used in this chapter may be
found, with much other material, in Mr. Andrews' brochure.
14 Whitford, 14.
1 18 CROWN OF LIFE
15 Excerpts from The North Carolina Gazette, New Bern, for Jan-
uary 4 and July 12, 1794, quoted by Dr. Archibald Henderson in his
article on early amateur dramatic groups in North Carolina which
was published December 19, 1926, in The Winston-Salem Journal
and other North Carolina newspapers.
16 Masonic lodge minutes.
17 Ibid. Irving as orator for the laying of the cornerstone is listed
with other local officers on an oblong silver plaque that came from
the original foundation stone and is now in the possession of the
local lodge. This small plaque was taken away by Northern soldiers
who used the Masonic Temple as a hospital during the War Between
the States. It was returned to the owners in 1898 by St. John's
Lodge, No. 1, of Providence, R. I.
18 North Carolina State Educational authorities say they know of
no older schoolhouse still being used in the State than the New Bern
building which school records show was finished in 1806.
19 Masonic minute books here.
2i Wheeler, John H., Historical Sketches of North Carolina, Vol. I,
p. 120. Whitford, op. cit., 208.
22 Cheshire, Sketches, 259.
23 Vass, op. cit., 93.
24 Coon, Charles Lee, North Carolina Schools and Academies, p. 50.
25 Cheshire, Sketches, p. 259.
26 in The Raleigh Register, Raleigh, N. C, for February 6, 1818,
appeared this item: "Died, Lately, the Rev. Thomas Pitt Irving,
principal of the Hagerstown Academy, formerly of New Bern."
THE REV. GEORGE STREBECK
THE REV. JOHN PHILLIPS, ASSISTANT RECTOR
Succeeding Mr. Irving as rector of Christ Church was
another educator, the Rev. George Strebeck, who also did
double duty as minister and school principal, 1813-15.
Little is known about Mr. Strebeck, but it is a matter
of church record that in 1814 and 1815 he was assisted
by the Rev. John Phillips. Much more is known about
Mr. Phillips and his work. 1
From the Revolution to 1817 there were six Episcopal
candidates for Holy Orders in North Carolina. Three of
these were from New Bern, all being teachers : Solomon
Hailing, Thomas Irving and John Phillips. The other
three were Adam Boyd, of Wilmington ; James L. Wilson,
of Martin County ; and John Avery, of Edenton. 2
Phillips had originally come from England as one of the
Wesley brothers' lay-preachers. His wife was a ward of
one of the famed Wesleys. When his associates took up
Methodism, he adhered to his church.
While in New Bern assisting Mr. Strebeck at the
school, Phillips became a candidate for the Episcopal
ministry and was ordained in August, 1814, by Bishop
Moore of Virginia. He continued to aid Mr. Strebeck at
both the local church and school until his removal to
Virginia in 1815.
During 1818 Mr. Phillips returned to North Carolina
from Virginia and served as a missionary in this State
until 1822. He organized Episcopal churches at Tarboro
and Warrenton, and revived a number of other churches.
To show what a wide territory he covered, he reported
in 1820 that he had traveled 220 miles a month since the
previous convention. Regular work was undertaken at
Tarboro, Washington, Warrenton and Blounts Chapel
(Trinity Church, Chocowinity) . In addition, he visited
120 CROWN OF LIFE
Hillsboro, Raleigh, Williamsboro, Oxford, Scotland Neck
and rural congregations in Pitt and Beaufort Counties.
While Mr. Phillips was serving at Tarboro, the first
steps were taken to organize Christ Church, Raleigh, and
build a church building there in 1820; but it was not
organized and admitted to the convention until 1822.
Probably from such strenuous travels and earnest
endeavors, Mr. Phillips' health failed about 1822. He
returned to Virginia, where he died in 1831. He was
particularly lauded for his fervent piety and great
simplicity of character.
The Rev. Mr. Strebeck left New Bern at about the same
time that Mr. Phillips did in 1815. He had likely had a
difficult time here. The War of 1812 took place during
most of the time that he was local rector.
New Bern was the largest town of North Carolina in
1815, with a population of approximately 3,600 ; a sub-
stantial increase from the 2,467 inhabitants, including
1,298 slaves, reported in 1810. 3
Bishop George W. Freeman of Arkansas was another
Episcopal clergyman who served here as a professor in
the New Bern Academy. For a time he was rector of
Christ Church, Raleigh. Both he and his brother, the
Rev. Frederick Freeman, also an Episcopal minister, were
associated in the local school about 1816 with another
brother, the Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, M. D., principal
of the Academy, a Presbyterian minister already men-
tioned as having conducted the funeral for the Rev.
Charles Pettigrew. 4
Daniel Drew, an English Episcopalian, opened a select
school here for instruction in the classics. He was a
Latin, Greek and Hebrew scholar. Though only a lay-
man, he is said to have been "quite a master in speculative
i Most of the facts about Messrs. Strebeck and Phillips in this
chapter are from Cheshire, Sketches, pp. 259, 275-76.
2 Ibid., 249.
3 United States Census. Vass, 97.
4 Cheshire, op. eit., 256. Vass, op. cit., 105.
5 Miller, Stephen F., "Recollections of New Bern Fifty Years Ago"
published in Our Living and Our Dead, official organ of the North
Carolina Branch of the Southern Historical Society, Vol. I, p. 339.
THE REV. JEHU CURTIS CLAY
ORGANIZATION OF DIOCESE
About the first of January, 1817, the Rev. Jehu Curtis
Clay, also a teacher as well as a priest, followed Mr.
Strebeck here, taking over educational and pastoral duties
for about a year. During his rectorship the Diocese of
North Carolina was organized at New Bern.
At that time there were only three Episcopal ministers
in this region. The Rev. Adam Empie had succeeded Dr.
Hailing as rector of St. James, Wilmington, in 1811, but
in 1814 returned to the North. He was followed at St.
James by the Rev. Bethel Judd. In November, 1816, he
came back to the pulpit at Wilmington, succeeding Mr.
Judd, who remained temporarily in that city. 1
Three years previously Mr. Empie had endeavored to
communicate with clergymen in the State to get them to
perfect an organization. Upon his return to North Caro-
lina, he renewed his efforts. Due to his earnest efforts,
with the material aid of Mr. Judd and Mr. Clay, the
organizing convention of the diocese was held at Christ
Church here on April 24, 1817. 2
All three ministers attended the convention. Judd, who
on May 1 became rector of St. John's Church, which he
had organized that year at Fayetteville, was elected
president. Empie was named secretary. Clay conducted
divine service ; Judd preached the forenoon sermon.
Six lay delegates were present : John Stanly and John
Spence West, from Christ Church; John Rutherford
London and Marsden Campbell, St. James ; John Winslow,
St. John's; and Josiah Collins, Jr., St. Paul's Church,
Judd, Empie, Clay, Stanly and London were named on
a Constitutional Committee to present a Constitution.
The General Constitution of the Protestant Episcopal
122 CROWN OF LIFE
Church of the United States was adopted. Rectors were
requested to take annual offerings for the support of
missionary work in the State. It was decided to hold
annual conventions on the second Thursday after Easter.
Later, when the organization seemed sufficiently strong,
it was planned to elect a diocesan bishop.
Meanwhile, the three rectors and less than 200 laymen
in the section were placed under the care of Bishop
Richard Channing Moore, of Virginia, who was asked to
visit the State and perform Episcopal offices at the dif-
As diocesan leaders for the year, Judd was elected
president; Empie, secretary; and Judd, Clay and Empie,
West, Winslow, Campbell and John B. Blount of Edenton
as members of the Standing Committee.
Moses Jarvis of New Bern and Mr. Judd were named
delegates to the next General Convention. Fayetteville
was chosen for the next State Convention, and Mr. Clay
was appointed to draft canons for consideration at that
But, before the time for the convention Mr. Clay had
been succeeded as the local rector by the Rev. Richard S.
Mason. A report in the official diocesan record reads :
"About the first of January, 1817, the Rev. Mr. Clay
took charge at New Bern ; and by his assiduity and talents
gave great hopes of extensive usefulness — but circum-
stances inducing his removal to the diocese of Maryland
cast a gloom for a time over the prospects, and damped
the zeal of the friends of Zion. A seasonable relief, how-
ever, is anticipated for the talents and zealous efforts of
the Rev. Mr. Mason, who has recently commenced his
labors in that congregation, with every prospect of
The Rev. Mr. Empie is well known in church history
outside this State. After leaving Wilmington in the
Spring of 1814, following his first rectorate of three years
there, he became the first chaplain at the United States
Military Academy at West Point, N. Y., which had just
previously been reorganized after the opening of the War
THE REV. JEHU CURTIS CLAY 123
of 1812. At Wilmington he is said to have increased his
congregation from 21 to 102 communicants.
Returning South, he again served as rector of St. James
Church from 1816 to 1829. For some time he was rector
of historic Bruton Parish and president of William and
Mary College at Williamsburg, Va.
Bishop Cheshire commented upon these beginnings of
diocesan organization : "The work of the first Convention
and the first Bishop of North Carolina was simply to
gather together and to organize the remains of the old
Colonial Church in the several localities where it had been
most successfully established . . . We today are the
ecclesiastical and spiritual representatives in fact, and
not merely in theory, of the Church which our Anglo-
Saxon fathers set up here to sanctify the new Continent
which they were subduing and civilizing." 4
i Cheshire, Sketches, pp. 261, 267-68.
2 This report of the diocesan organization meeting is taken from
the official minutes contained in the Diocesan Journal of 1817 in the
business office of the present diocesan organization at Wilmington,
3 Excerpt from the 1818 Diocesan Journal.
4 Cheshire, op. cit., 277.
THE REV. RICHARD SHARPE MASON
Dr. Mason served here as rector from the Spring of
1818 until 1828, his ten years ranking fourth in length
of service. He was one of the outstanding Episcopal
ministers in North Carolina, serving long and ably at
Raleigh for many years during the last part of his life.
Soon after his arrival in New Bern he represented
Christ Church at the second diocesan convention, which
was held April 2, 1818, at Fayetteville. Lay delegates
included John W. Guion, of New Bern. Probably due to
the recent change in rectors, no report or collection for
the local parish is given in the official minutes of the
Mr. Judd was re-elected president, and Mr. Empie was
renamed secretary. By that time Edenton had a rector,
the Rev. John Avery, who also attended the gathering, as
did the Rev. John Phillips, formerly of New Bern, then of
Virginia, who in that year returned to North Carolina as
a mission worker around Tarboro, Warrenton and Wash-
ington. Admitted into the union was St. Jude's Church,
reported organized in Orange County.
The first record on the oldest extant parish registers
among the local church documents is dated May 6, 1818,
and is in the handwriting of Dr. Mason. It records the
baptism of two small Negro girls, as follows:
"May 6 — At the house of William Judd — Julia, a black
female child aged about 6 years, the property of said Wm.
Judd ; sponsors William Judd, his wife, Mehitable Judd.
Also at the same time and place Laura, a black infant
daughter of Pakey, a black man and property of Wm.
Judd, and Sukey, a free black woman."
A notation in the front of this oldest register written
by the Rev. J. R. Goodman, next local rector, states that
previous parish records were destroyed in a fire which in
1818 burned the house of Lucas Benners, then secretary
of the vestry. It is chiefly for this reason that it is so
THE REV. RICHARD SHARPE MASON 125
difficult and at times impossible to trace the early history
of the church in detail. From that year on the records
are fairly complete. However, the first vestry book
extant goes back only to 1830.
Born on the Island of Barbados in the West Indies
December 29, 1795, Mason was only 22 years old when he
came to New Bern. He had been graduated from the
University of Pennsylvania in 1811, at the early age of
fifteen. On September 21, 1817, he had been ordained
deacon by Bishop White in St. Peter's Church, Phila-
delphia ; and it was not until April 30, 1820, after he had
been at Christ Church for two years, that he was ordained
priest by Bishop Moore in St. Paul's Church, Edenton.
That he was greatly beloved here is apparent from the
fact that numerous babies he baptized were named for
him. He kept careful, neat records of all his official acts
in the parish. Among the entries are reports of many
baptisms of colored folk, and in most instances their
white owners acted as their sponsors.
An entry in Dr. Mason's register, dated February 4,
1819, shows that at the house of William Gaston was
baptized Catherine Jane Gaston, daughter of William and
Eliza Ann Worthington Gaston, born January 21 of that
year. Sponsors were Mrs. Gaston, Mr. Worthington and
The mother, formerly of Georgetown, who was Gaston's
third wife, died later in the year, leaving two infant
daughters. For the remaining quarter of a century of his
life the statesman was a widower. 2 Evidently he did not
object to the Episcopal baptism of his child at his home,
although he was a loyal Catholic and Catholic services
were often held in his home, 3 now known as the Coor-
Gaston-Henderson house, on Craven and New Streets,
which he purchased April 17, 1818, 4 and where he resided
locally until his death in 1844.
In April, 1819, New Bern was visited by President
Monroe. He is reported to have worshipped in Christ
Church. St. John's Masonic lodge sent him an address of
welcome, signed by Lucas Jacob Benners, then Worshipful
Master. The President's reply, dated at New Bern April
126 CROWN OF LIFE
12, read in part, as still recorded in original Masonic
record books :
"Deriving as we do, all the blessings which a kind
Providence has bestowed on us, from our republican insti-
tutions, we should forfeit all claims to the continuance
of the Divine favor, if we did not zealously cherish, and
steadily adhere to these institutions.
"Having a common interest, and bound together as the
American people are, by all the ties which can cement
their union, I see with great satisfaction the increasing
harmony, in the public opinion, proceeding from those
great causes, which you have noticed, and which it is so
consistent with the benevolent principles of your society
to cherish." 5
Dr. Mason and Moses Jarvis represented the local
church April 22 at the third diocesan convention in
Wilmington. On the second day Mason preached the con-
vention sermon. For this parish he reported nine bap-
tisms, four marriages, eight funerals, and 32 communi-
cants, with 80 subscribed to the missionary fund. 6
An idea of the improving church conditions in this
area at that period may be obtained from the address of
Bishop Moore to the Virginia convention of 1821, regard-
ing the North Carolina diocesan convention which he had
attended the previous year at Edenton:
"The church of that Diocese holds up to your view the
most encouraging prospects. In Edenton, at which place
the Convention was convened, our sittings were attended
by great numbers of people, some of whom had come
from a distance of near fifty miles to witness our pro-
ceeding and attend upon our ministry. In that place I
ordained two deacons, and admitted one gentleman to the
priesthood. In the Diocese so late as the year 1817 there
was not a single clergyman: they are now blessed with
the labors of seven faithful men; and in the course of
another year, several candidates, who are now preparing
for Holy Orders, will be admitted to the Ministry of the
In the year 1822 there were nine Episcopal ministers
reported for this diocese. 8
THE REV. RICHARD SHARPE MASON 127
Although comparatively young while here, Dr. Mason
is said to have been quite absent-minded. Once in plant-
ing vegetables in his garden, he is reported to have put
the peas in his pocket and his spectacles in the ground. 9
As a devout minister, he did his best to win religious
converts. Jarvis B. Buxton gave up his business and
became rector at Fayetteville. 10 An instance where he
failed is related in Stephen Miller's Recollections. Among
the members of Christ Church was Mrs. Narcissa Hatch
Howard, a pious Christian. Her husband, Josiah Howard,
of New Bern and Jones County, was averse to religion.
The wife requested Dr. Mason to attend Howard's bedside
while the latter was ill. But, despite every effort, Miller
reports, the rector could not make any headway in con-
verting Howard. 11
At the 1826 diocesan convention Dr. Mason reported
that he was giving instruction in the catechism and
lectures on the Scriptures to colored residents of New
Bern and that every Thursday night he was delivering
lectures at the church on the Acts of the Apostles. 12 The
next year he deplored a great decline in zeal and piety at
New Bern. 13
Perhaps it was this decline that led to his decision to
leave this parish. His transfer to the Diocese of Penn-
sylvania was reported in 1828, at the same time that the
Rev. Francis L. Hawks was reported as having trans-
ferred to Connecticut. John H. Bryan represented Christ
Church at that year's convention. 14
Dr. Mason became rector of St. Matthews Church,
Geneva, N. Y., in 1828 ; and the next year began to act as
president of Geneva College. In 1835 he became president
of Newark College in Delaware. During 1840 he started
his long service as rector of Christ Church, Raleigh, a post
he held as a capable and beloved leader until his death
there February 21, 1874. 15
That he made an excellent record in New Bern and left
many friends and admirers here is indicated by the fact
that the vestry let him take with him from here the
Prayer Book that had been presented to this parish by
King George II. He always intended to return it at his
128 CROWN OF LIFE
death, as shown by a note in his own writing pasted in
the volume. It was returned to Christ Church after his
death by his widow, Mrs. Mary Bryan Mason.
Resolutions of respect to his memory, in the writing
of the late Frederick C. Roberts, are still spread upon
local vestry minutes, as passed after Dr. Mason's death.
They call attention to the fact that he had served here as
rector fifty years before and the "good influence then
exerted by him is still felt among us," and "we recognize
in him one of the best, purest and ablest divines who has
ever adorned the ministry of our church." 16
i Diocesan Journal, 1818.
2 Connor, op. cit., p. 47.
3 Irwin, the Rev. M. A., "History of St. Paul's Catholic Church,
New Bern," published in Neiv Bern Sun-Journal, Saturday, May 7,
4 Craven County Record of Deeds, Book 40; pp. 190-91.
5 St. John's Masonic Lodge minutes, April, 1819.
6 Diocesan Journal, 1819.
"' Virginia Diocesan Journal, 1821.
8 North Carolina Diocesan Journal, 1822.
9 Roberts, Dita, A Short Historical Sketch of Christ Church
Parish, p. 14.
io Miller, op. cit., 243.
ii Ibid., 464.
12 Diocesan Journal, 1826. (Hereafter the North Carolina Diocesan
Journals will be cited as D. J.).
is ibid., 1827.
14 Ibid., 1828.
is Data about Dr. Mason came from Diocesan Journals, parish
registers, church histories and articles. Miller, op. cit., 339.
is Vestry Minutes, Christ Church Parish, 1874. (Hereafter the
Vestry Minutes will be cited as V. M.)
Second Local Episcopal Church — 1824
OTHER LOCAL DENOMINATIONS
By 1818 the Methodists and Baptists had erected
churches in New Bern, and Presbyterians were planning
for a handsome edifice. It was natural for Episcopalians
to press their efforts towards completion of long-pending
arrangements for a new church.
Methodists organized here in 1802, and held great camp
meetings in 1803. They were next to the Episcopalians
in constructing a house of worship. Their present
structure, Centenary Methodist Church, dedicated
October 22, 1905, is their third; being preceded by old
Andrew Chapel on Hancock Street and their second
church on New Street.
Between 1785 and 1807 Bishops Asbury and Whitecoat
of their denomination preached here at different times.
It is reported that on his last visit Bishop Asbury was so
feeble that he had to sit while he delivered his sermon in
Andrew Chapel. Previously he had held services at the
Episcopal Church. 1
The Rev. Lorenzo Dow preached in the Methodist
Chapel, and announced surprisingly that he would return
for another service there at noon exactly two years from
then. Many local bets were made as to whether he would
keep this strange engagement.
At the appointed time a huge assembly gathered in the
chapel, but there was no sign of Dow. Suddenly, just as
the hour struck, he appeared in the pulpit. The congre-
gation was thrown into a frenzy of excitement, as he
announced his text: "Be not afraid; it is I." He had
arrived in town the night before, in disguise, and had kept
hidden until noon. 2
The Rev. Amos C. Treadway, who was pastor of the
Methodist Chapel here in 1821, declared in one of his
sermons: "I had rather be a poor Methodist preacher,
traveling over the barren hills of Carolina, receiving my
one hundred dollars a year, than to be a Prince seated on
130 CROWN OF LIFE
his throne." However, at the next Conference he with-
drew from the denomination and soon became an Epis-
copal minister. 3
Edward Wadsworth, native of Craven County and
president of LaGrange College in Alabama, is among
others who preached at the chapel. Melvell B. Cox is
reported to have given himself to missions towards the
close of the 1831 Conference there. After a year as a
missionary to Africa he died, with the injunction, "let a
thousand missionaries fall rather than give up Africa." 4
A unique monument to a colored Methodist minister
is found today in Greenwood Negro cemetery here. Its
inscription tells his story:
"Here lie the remains of John Cook, the colored
preacher. He was a native of Africa and was brought to
this country in the year 1805. He was converted and
joined the Methodist church at this place in 1818 and soon
after became a preacher of the Gospel. His deep and
consistent piety secured unbounded confidence in his
Christian character. Having spent his life in the service
of God he died in holy triumph on the 24th of November,
1856. In the 65th year of his age. This monument was
erected to his memory by his brethren and friends, white
and colored, in token of their respect and Christian
"Soldier of Christ, well done;
Praise be thy new employ,
And while eternal ages run
Rest in thy Saviour's joy."
Presbyterians organized here January 7, 1817, under
the leadership of John Witherspoon, grandson of a Signer
of the Declaration of Independence. 5 Mrs. Eunice
Edwards Pollock Hunt, a charter member, was daughter
of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, 6 famous New England
minister and president of Princeton College, and sister of
the mother of Vice President Aaron Burr. This is the
oldest Presbyterian organization and their church is the
oldest church structure of their denomination in any
town of Eastern North Carolina.
OTHER LOCAL DENOMINATIONS 131
Their church, still considered an architectural gem, was
dedicated January 6, 1822. 7 It is said to have been built
from a design made for earlier churches by Sir Christo-
pher Wren, noted English architect, responsible for the
beauty of St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
Pastors of the church have had important careers. The
Rev. John Nicholson Campbell, supply minister, left here
in 1820 to become Chaplain of Congress. 8 The Rev.
Drury Lacy, here 1834-36, served as president of Davidson
College and he and his wife opened a school in Raleigh
which became Peace College. 9 His son, Dr. Ben R. Lacy,
Sr., was long State Treasurer; and a grandson, Dr. Ben
Lacy, Jr., is now president of Union Seminary.
Dr. Charles G. Vardell, pastor here from 1891 to 1896,
was first president and is now president emeritus of Flora
Macdonald College at Red Springs. His son, Dr. Charles
Vardell, Jr., directs the music department at Salem
College. The Rev. Dr. Lachlan C. Vass, local pastor, now
deceased, still ranks as one of the chief historians of this
Two sons of this local church have enlisted in foreign
mission fields — Lachlan Vass, Jr., who went to Africa,
and Dr. William Hollister, of this city, who served for
some years as a medical missionary to Korea.
Baptists 10 organized here May 11, 1809, and by 1812
had finished a "meeting-house" on Johnson Street near
the cemetery entrance, the present site of St. Cyprian's
colored Episcopal Church. This was New Bern's third
denomination to erect a house of worship. The second
Baptist church here, their present edifice, was dedicated
July 2, 1848. Probably patterned after the same drawing,
it bears a close similarity to the Chapel of the Cross, an
Episcopal church at Chapel Hill, erected about the same
Local Baptist pastors have been prominent in church
and educational history. Meredith College and Furman
University took their names from former New Bern
pastors, the Rev. Thomas Meredith and the Rev. Richard
Furman, Jr. The "Biblical Recorder," State Baptist
publication, was started here January 5, 1835, by
132 CROWN OF LIFE
Meredith ; another local pastor, the Rev. J. M. C. Breaker,
founded "The Confederate Baptist," at Columbia, S. C.
Wake Forest College was the idea of a New Bern
pastor, the Rev. William Hooper, who had turned to the
Baptist ministry from the Episcopal pulpit. A native of
Wilmington, he was a grandson of William Hooper, who
signed the Declaration of Independence for North Caro-
lina. The Baptist leader became second president of
Wake Forest; and later served as president of Chowan
Female Institute, 1855-62; following New Bern service,
Samuel Wait, first president of Wake Forest College,
became prominent in North Carolina because of an acci-
dent that forced him to come to New Bern. He also
served as local pastor. For five years he was president of
Oxford Female Seminary.
Other pastors had outstanding educational records:
the building at Chowan College was due to Martin R.
Forey, president; Joseph Andrews Warne, first principal
of Furman Academy ; Josiah J. Finch, principal at Sedge-
wick Female Seminary; Theodore Whitefield, principal of
a Mississippi school for the blind ; and Abraham David
Cohen, resident superintendent of Oxford Orphanage.
Established in 1821, the local Catholic parish is the
oldest in North Carolina. Originally comprising almost
all Eastern Carolina, it long drew members and visitors
from as far west as Greensboro.
St. Paul's Catholic Church edifice, still in use, was
erected 1840-41, now ranking as the oldest of its denomi-
nation in the State. Previous services were held at
William Gaston's home. Cardinal Gibbons often visited
here while Bishop of the North Carolina vicariate, 1868-
72. Father Harry Northrop, local priest, became Bishop
of Charleston; and another priest, Father Thomas F.
Price, founded the Catholic Orphanage at Raleigh and the
American Foreign Missionary Society at Mary Knoll,
N. Y. 11
During May, 1848, a Union Baptist minister, Peter
Howell, came to New Bern. A few followers were formed
October 7 into an O'Kellyan Christian Church, with 29
OTHER LOCAL DENOMINATIONS 133
members, including two prominent laymen, Messrs. Bragg
and Ellixon. The group did not have continuous leader-
ship, and became disorganized during the War Between
the States. It was not until about 1886 that Disciples of
Christ permanently organized here. Their first church,
formerly standing on Hancock Street, was completed and
dedicated December 1, 1889, with 65 charter members.
Their present handsome edifice, Broad Street Christian
Church, was dedicated April 18, 1926. 12 A charter
member, Miss Etta Nunn, has long served the denomi-
nation in Auxiliary work and Mexican mission fields.
Free Will Baptists began a church here a century ago
which joined the historic old Bethel Conference, the back-
ground for many pioneer Disciples of Christ in North
Carolina. This church had 46 members in 1841, when the
first Christian organizations were begun in the State.
The group failed to go over to the Disciples of Christ. It
has had a long and honorable record here.
The Tabernacle Baptist Church was organized in 1895.
The cornerstone of the First Church of Christ, Scientist,
was laid December 31, 1903, the first of that faith to be
built and dedicated in North Carolina. Financial contri-
bution was made by Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy, discoverer
of Christian Science. The Jewish synagogue, Chester
B'Nai Sholem, was built in 1908. The Riverside Methodist
Church was organized in 1915 from a Sunday School that
had been opened in that part of town the year before.
Their church building was erected in 1920.
But, in 1818, there were only three churches and three
pastors in New Bern. A writer reported in that year :
"There are three houses of public worship in New Bern,
and at present three congregations supplied with pastors.
The Episcopalians, who are a numerous and respectable
body, have a decent brick church, at present supplied with
"The Methodists, the most numerous society of
Christians in the place, have a very large and convenient
chapel, and are supplied with a regular succession of able
and evangelical preachers. The Baptists have a meeting-
house, at present out of repair. They have no regular
134 CROWN OF LIFE .
preacher. Besides these, a Presbyterian congregation
meets at the Academy for public worship." 13
Stephen Chester, a Presbyterian, wrote a humorous
poem about the churches for a New Year's address
January 2, 1819. It follows, as printed in the Carolina
Centinel here: 14
A Church of George the Second's reign
Still flings its shadow o'er the plain,
But mouldering on its ancient lease
Must soon resign its resting place.
Next comes a house without a name
To that of church it has no claim,
And yet the long misshapen pile
Contains a throng 'twixt either aisle,
And in the galleries perch'd above,
To join in prayer and feasts of love ;
Its various worshipers can tell
Why they reject a spire or bell.
The Baptist Barn comes next to view
Where winter winds turn noses blue,
And shiv'ring devotees retire
Right glad from worship to the fire;
But Presbyterians in the lurch,
Too poor or mean to build a church,
Are glad to find admittance here
When its own priests don't interfere.
i For this and other material on local Methodism, see Vass, op.
cit., pp. 79-80; Plyler, Dr. M. T., "Early Methodist Ministers in North
Carolina," published in The North Carolina Christian Advocate,
November 12, 1936; Hendren, Elizabeth Mayhew, "History of New
Bern Methodists," published in New Bern Sun-Journal, November
19, 1936; and other articles published in that same Methodist Con-
ference Edition of the Sun-Journal, November 19, 1936 .
2Whitford, op. cit., pp. 273-74.
3 Miller, op. cit., 340.
4 Ibid. Local church records. Methodist histories.
5 Vass, 106.
OTHER LOCAL DENOMINATIONS 135
7 Ibid., 124.
9 Ibid., 155.
io Chief source of this Baptist summary was an address, "A Cen-
tury of Service," by the Rev. Dr. Hight C. Moore, editorial secretary
of the Baptist Sunday School Board at Nashville and former local
pastor, during the program here commemorating the 125th anni-
versary of the First Baptist Church organization here on November
13, 1934, as a feature of the 104th annual session of the North
Carolina Baptist State Convention. A manuscript copy of the
address is in the possession of the author of this history.
ii Irwin, op. cit.
12 Most of the information about the local Disciples was obtained
from articles written by C. C. Ware, of Wilson, corresponding secre-
tary of the North Carolina Christian Missionary Convention, in The
North Carolina Christian, and from an article on the history of the
Broad Street Christian Church by John R. Taylor, published in The
New Bern Times, December 15, 1939.
uibid., 113. Whitford, 230-31.
SECOND EPISCOPAL CHURCH BUILDING
During Dr. Mason's rectorate the second Episcopal
church was erected here. The same location was used,
but instead of having the building at the corner of the lot
the larger structure was placed to the northeast, the
As early as January 2, 1778, the southwest corner of
the church lot had been designated as the true beginning
for the plan of the town. 1 The "Lady Blessington"
cannon taken from the British Ship-of-War Lady
Blessington after a sharp engagement during the Revo-
lution by an armed privateer owned by John Wright
Stanly, New Bern patriot and member of Christ Church,
was planted on that corner and was used in laying out
the city. 2
In 1789, as previously mentioned, a State bill was
passed 3 permitting nine Episcopalians named as church
wardens to accept donations for erecting a new and
larger church than their small Colonial structure which
is said to have resembled on the interior the Episcopal
church still standing at Georgetown, S. C, which was also
erected in 1750. 4 But it took a long time to raise sufficient
A definite proposal for construction of the church was
drafted in 1820. 5 Undoubtedly the local building boom
gave impetus to the movement. On a special committee
for the purpose were appointed M. C. Stephens, J. R.
Donnell, Moses Jarvis, John P. Daves and J. F. Burgwyn.
Decision was reached to have the edifice face the South.
It was to be a brick structure, 70 feet long and 55 feet
wide, with a shingle roof. Besides the main auditorium,
with two aisles and fifty to sixty pews, there was to be a
vestry room. High arched windows were planned, and
side galleries. Special mention was made that there was
to be an organ.
SECOND EPISCOPAL CHURCH BUILDING 137
This new church was consecrated February 1, 1824, 6 by
the Rt. Rev. John Stark Ravenscroft 7 (1772-1830), born
in Virginia and bred in England and Scotland, who had
been elected and installed in 1823 as the first bishop of
the permanently-organized Diocese of North Carolina.
Previously Bishop Moore of Virginia had made four
annual visitations in North Carolina and presided over the
diocesan conventions, 1819-1822. 8
Bishop Ravenscroft was a large and commanding
personality, with a voice "like the roaring of a lion." 9
His eyebrows were so heavy that he called them his
"dormer windows." 10 For years, he said, he tried hard
and finally succeeded in checking his besetting sin of
While studying law at William and Mary College, Wil-
liamsburg, Va., he is reported to have been dissipated,
but was rescued by the lady who later became his wife.
He wrote of her that what she did not approve she would
not smile on, yet she never gave him a cross word or an
ill-natured look in her life. 11
Despite his early Scotch Presbyterian training, he
joined the Republican or Reformed Methodists, but after
study he turned to the Episcopal religion "for that deposit
of Apostolical succession in which alone verifiable power
to minister in sacred things was to be found in these
United States." 12
Accordingly, he became a candidate for Holy Orders
and was licensed as a lay reader by Bishop Moore
February 17, 1816, the next year being ordained April 25
as a deacon in Monumental Church, Richmond. On May
6 he became rector at Fredericksburg. In 1818 he was
ordained a priest.
When named Bishop of North Carolina, he was the
tenth Episcopal Bishop for America. His diocese was
weak and congregations were small, but he was a fearless
leader, wise in counsel and strong in action, and he
traveled extensively to build up the church in the State.
For his first year there were reported 480 communi-
cants and seven clergymen, with 200 baptisms. His
salary was set at $750, to be paid semi-annually, not
138 CROWN OF LIFE .
including his pay as rector of Christ Church, Raleigh. 13
In 1831 after his death there were reported to be fifteen
ministers and 809 communicants in the diocese, most of
them in East Carolina. 14
In his "Recollections of New Bern Fifty Years Ago,"
published 1874-75 in the magazine, Our Living and Our
Dead, Stephen Miller, former New Bernian, speaks
briefly of the dedication of the "new brick edifice" by the
The choir for the dedication was led by James B.
Ackroyd, church organist, who was a piano and organ
teacher and composer, Miller reports, so there must have
been an organ in the church from the beginning. He
adds, "Most of the influential families in New Bern were
represented in the membership and pews of the church." 15
Among the clergymen present for the service, he says,
was the Rev. William Hooper, LL.D., professor at the
University of North Carolina, 1818-1838, and at a later
period professor at the South Carolina College at
Columbia. 10 He had entered the Episcopal ministry in
1818, at the age of 26, but as previously mentioned turned
to the Baptist denomination. In 1831 he was baptized as
a Baptist and became an influential Baptist minister. 17
Showing how prominent churchmen underwrote the
final costs of the new Episcopal church here, an original
indenture of the church vestry, dated February 4, 1824,
is still extant, 18 signed by members of the Building Com-
mittee: M. C. Stephens, J. Burgwyn, Moses Jarvis and
John P. Daves:
"Whereas, the subscribers for building Christ Church
in general meeting agreed that if the excess of sales of
pews be less than the debts due to the builders and banks,
the deficiency should be raised by payments on the notes
given by subscribers . . . acknowledge receipt of John
R. Donnell, R. D. and Charles Spaight, $394.50, being the
amount of their assessment, this sum to be repaid out of
the proceeds of the sales of pews still unsold, previous to
any distribution on account of the original subscription."
A design of the church seats appears on the paper, and
a notation shows a contract "between John Stanly, Marcus
SECOND EPISCOPAL CHURCH BUILDING 139
C. Stephens, John W. Guion, Moses Jarvis, John Merrit,
John P. Daves and James G. Stanly, vestry, trustees, for
$639, for two pews, numbers 23 and 25, subject to tax not
exceeding $17.50 per year for support of pastor." 19
The paper bears the seal of John M. Roberts as witness
and the signatures of the vestrymen : J. Stanly, Stephens,
Guion, Jarvis, Daves, Merrit and J. G. Stanly.
Within several years the church was in need of repairs,
as shown in a record dated November 27, 1832: "The
undersigned having been requested to examine the state
of Christ Church in this town since the completion of the
essential repairs thereof do hereby certify that they
conscientiously believe the repairs to be perfectly secure
from the most remote danger and that its condition is
such to warrant the presence of the greatest possible
assemblage." Signed by B. Flanner, Joshua Mitchell,
F. Sparrow, Hardy B. Lane and D. Mumford. 20
Flanner and Mitchell were brick masons ; Mumford was
a colored brick mason ; Sparrow was a shipbuilder ; Lane
built the steeple to the old Baptist church and had charge
of all the carpenter work executed on the new brick
One of the "leading men of his line," Bennett Flanner
is said to have had charge of much of the new Episcopal
church construction. Stephen F. Miller wrote: "He
moved on the scaffolding high in the air, apparently with
as much indifference as if standing on the pavement
below. I saw him stand erect nearly a half -hour on the
apex of the steeple, not less than 150 feet high, with no
other surface of support than the twenty or thirty inches
diameter on which his feet rested." 21
Walls of the edifice had to be repaired again in 1833.
The roof spread several inches on the huge structure,
forcing out the side walls and rendering the building
dangerous. 22 The old roof was taken off, to restore the
walls to their proper position. A new roof of a different
material was substituted, with cypress shingles. This is
said to have been a cause of the heavy fire loss when the
church was burned in 1871.
140 CROWN OF LIFE .
iSt. Rec, XIII, 357; XXIV, 246.
2 Vass, p. 87.
3 St. Rec, XXV, 35-36. Supra, pp. 86, 100 et seq.
4 Whitford, p. 35.
5 V. M., 1820.
6 V. M., 1824, and original certificate of consecration.
"' This brief sketch of Bishop Ravenscroft came from various
sources, but particularly the article, "The First Three Bishops —
Ravenscroft, Ives and Atkinson," written by the Rt. Rev. Alfred A.
Watson, D. D., and published in Cheshire's Sketches, pp. 279-287,
8 Cheshire, Sketches, 278.
9 Watson, article mentioned, p. 281.
12 Ibid., p. 285.
13 Marshall, the Rev. Matthias M., D. D., "The Church in North
Carolina: Its Present Condition and Prospects," published in
Cheshire's Sketches, see p. 342.
is Op. cit., pp. 339, 456.
is Ibid., 339.
17 Moore, op. cit. Whitford, op. cit., p. 262.
18 John D. Whitford Collection, North Carolina Historical Commis-
sion Archives, Raleigh.
io A design of the church pews also appears on the original deed
of the Vestry to J. R. Donnell, R. D. Spaight and Charles Spaight,
for Pews No. 23 and 25, dated November, 1825, now in the museum
of the New Bern Public Library. According to this deed, the three
men subscribed $1,000 and were assessed $394.50, but were credited
with $639 for the pews.
20 Whitford, op. cit., 270-1. Record in Whitford Collection, N. C.
Historical Commission, Raleigh.
21 Miller, op. cit., 348.
22 Whitford, 270.
THE REV. JOHN R. GOODMAN
Ordained priest at St. Paul's Church, Edenton, on April
16, 1828, after arriving in North Carolina from Pennsyl-
vania, the Rev. John R. Goodman became rector of Christ
Church in December of that year. 1
With great enthusiasm he set to work to build up his
congregation and the loyalty of its members. A Sunday
School was established, and a library started. Women
of the church formed an "Industrious Society." New light
fixtures were installed in the new church ; and a bell, "of
large size," was obtained.
By 1830 Mr. Goodman could report to the diocese that
there was an "increase in the religious sensibility" of
his congregation. He said that many prayer books and
religious tracts had been distributed. Lay delegates to
the convention that year were Moses Jarvis, James W.
Bryan, Charles G. Spaight and William N. Hawks. 2
An old minute book of the vestry, recently found here
by C. H. Stith and turned over to Senior Warden E. K.
Bishop for the church archives, has a first entry dated
May 7, 1830. This is the oldest local vestry book still
extant, so far as is known. Mr. Stith is the great-
grandson of Moses Jarvis.
Still further "increase of seriousness and religious
sensibility" at New Bern was reported by Mr. Goodman in
1832. a During 1829 there had been 75 members listed on
the church rolls, six of the former 81 having been marked
off as dying during the year; while by 1832 the number
had grown to 106, including eleven Negroes. 4
That Summer the rector was granted a leave of absence
from the middle of August to the end of October, to
attend the General Convention in the North. The next
February his salary was reported to be inadequate for his
support, and he was allowed for one year all revenue from
the church pews less the expense of collections. 5
142 CROWN OF LIFE
Apparently the "religious sensibility" of his flock did
not keep on the upward march. For, in 1833, he reported
that many of the members had "too much of a heedless
unconcern for the dying behest of their Lord." However,
he did report the establishment of a missionary society
and the formation of a colored congregation, likely the
first of each for the local church. 6
The records by Mr. Goodman in his parish registers
are unusually neat and explicit. He used Roman
numerals. He kept a careful index, and added many
explanatory notes, as about the destruction of the first
church records by fire. 7
By a marriage ceremony entry, he noted that the man
was found later to be from Columbia, S. C, where he
passed under another name, having a wife and family
there. Goodman added in his own defense, "As he was
a stranger in this place, I made every enquiry, and was
repeatedly assured by the person who brought the license
that no legal impediment existed." 8
From an entry October 31, 1833, it is learned that the
church service was conducted at the Academy building
while the church was undergoing repairs. 9
Some of the pews in those days were decorated or lined.
A notation of February 10, 1834, was to the effect that
those pewholders "disposed to line and trim their Pews,
on the sides and back thereof, be requested to use a red
colour for the same, in order to conform to the hangings
and trimmings of the pulpit and desk."
Before Mr. Goodman resigned the local rectorate in
1834, the congregation lost a prominent layman and
member of the vestry, John Stanly. On December 15,
1829, and probably on other occasions, the minister gave
communion to the layman in his "sick chamber" at the
Stanly home here, he reported in the local register.
The tombstone near the front entrance of Cedar Grove
cemetery bears this inscription, written by William
Gaston, who also wrote the memorial obituary of the
"Sacred to the memory of John Stanly, eldest son of
John Wright Stanly and Ann, his wife, who was born at
THE REV. JOHN R. GOODMAN 143
New Bern, N. C, on the ninth day of April in the year of
our Lord 1774 and died on the second day of August in
the year 1833.
"Few persons in any community have occupied a more
prominent station, few have exercised a more powerful
influence than this distinguished individual for many
years held and exerted in our Town and throughout our
State. Long let the affectionate and grateful remem-
brance live of his genius, his learning, his courtesy, his
eloquence, his virtues, his personal charities and his public
services. — Gaston."
1 D. J., 1828-29.
2 Ibid., 1830.
3 Ibid., 1832.
4 First Parish Register.
5 V. M., 1832-33.
6 D. J., 1833.
7 Supra, p. 124.
8 Parish Register.
9 V. M., 1833.
THE REV. JOHN BURKE
The Rev. John Burke became rector of Christ Church
in 1835, and served until 1837.
At first he was only temporarily called, at $50 per
month, and he accepted on that basis, until the vestry
could hear definitely from a call extended to Dr. Mason,
then of Geneva, N. Y., urging him to return to the local
church, at a salary of $800 a year. 1
Dr. Mason declined the local invitation, and in July,
1835, Mr. Burke was named permanent rector, according
to a note in the parish records made by Charles Shepard,
secretary of the vestry. Burke expressed thanks to
"those gentlemen who contributed to defray his travel
expenses" to New Bern. The vestry voted $50 to William
Hawks, who had substituted in the pulpit while there was
In June of 1835 the vestry had voted to engage a rector
for only one year at a time, the appointment to cease at
the termination of that period unless the rector was noti-
fied three months before expiration of the term that
continuation of his services was desired. This action,
however, was rescinded in 1838.
Mr. Burke was re-elected rector in July, 1836, at a
salary of $700 a year. He had asked an increase of pay,
but the vestry declined, saying they were unable to raise
the amount at that time. 2
His first convention report explained that the deficit for
the Bishop's salary from his parish was due to the fact
that collections had been irregular since his predecessor
had left New Bern. 3 In 1837 he reported that he was in-
structing youths in the catechism, and was doing as much
as he could to improve the Sunday School. 4
Started here on July 4, 1837, was the Female Benevo-
lent Society, now the New Bern Benevolent Society, the
oldest charitable organization in North Carolina still in
existence and probably the second oldest in the United
THE REV. JOHN BURKE 145
States. 5 An earlier Female Charitable Society, started
here in 1812, had dissolved after several years. 6
The Benevolent Society was sponsored by a native New
Bernian who had been visiting the relatives of her
Northern husband. The first president was Miss Janet
Taylor, afterwards married to William Hollister. The
Rev. Mr. Burke likely assisted with the organization.
Its purpose was "to assist temporarily, during sickness,
stress of weather, or other unavoidable casualty such
'respectable females' as are ordinarily in the habit of sup-
porting themselves by their own industry." In 1843 it
was incorporated. During 1851 it was left $1,000 by
Michael Lente, this still being a trust fund, interest used
for relief work.
Succeeding the late Bishop Ravenscroft, the Rev. Levi
Silliman Ives, of Connecticut, had become the second
Bishop of North Carolina in 183 1. 7 He was popular during
his 22-year service, diocesan conventions were like family
reunions, and the church flourished under his untiring and
zealous leadership. When he started his work, he found
15 clergymen and 809 communicants ; when he concluded,
he left 40 ministers and more than 2,000 members.
His educational and literary interests were also out-
standing. St. Mary's school at Raleigh was started, as
was the mountain mission at Valle Crucis. Five of his
sermons were published, as "The Apostles' Doctrine and
But, he had trouble with his personal beliefs and con-
victions. Reared a Presbyterian, he began preparing for
the ministry when he decided to turn to the Episcopal
church. He was ordained in 1823. After holding a
number of important charges in New York and Pennsyl-
vania, he was rector of St. Luke's Church in New York
when called to North Carolina.
About 1848 he showed inclinations towards Romanism.
For four years he wavered in his faiths, but then made his
decision. In 1853, after he became a Roman Catholic, he
resigned as the Episcopal Bishop of North Carolina in a
letter written from Rome.
146 CROWN OF LIFE
i Vestry Minutes, 1835.
2 Ibid., 1836.
3D. J., 1836.
4 Ibid., 1837.
5 Records of the local organization give full history, and its rank
in age through the country has been checked with State and
6 Johnson, Guion Griffis, Ante-Bellum North Carolina, pp. 163,
7 Watson, op. cit., 287-92, et passim.
8 Marshall, op. cit., 342.
THE REV. CAMERON F. McRAE
After the resignation of the Rev. Mr. Burke, the vestry
in November, 1837, invited the Rev. William Hawks and
the Rev. Harvey Stanly, both natives and residents of
New Bern, to hold services as often as they could at
Christ Church until a regular rector might be procured. 1
A resolution was passed by the vestry to the end that
any vestryman had a right to invite an Episcopal clergy-
man to preach here without consulting the other members.
No report of the church was given to the diocese in
1838, as no rector was here that Spring. During June of
that year came the Rev. Cameron Farquahar McRae, of
Elizabeth City, who served from 1838 to 1842. He had
been recommended in May by Bishop Ives at request of
the vestry and was to receive $650 the first year, with
later increase. 2
A leader of unbounded charity and benevolence, he
assisted the women of his and other denominations with
their new Female Benevolent society. Also active at the
same time was a pioneer Female Education Society of
New Bern, an auxiliary to assist the Presbyterian Board
of Education, particularly in aiding "pious indigent young
men in obtaining an education for the gospel ministry." 3
That Mr. McRae made an excellent rector is shown in
the following resolution passed and recorded by the vestry
April 18, 1840, and addressed to Bishop Ives :
"McRae having signified a willingness to be admitted
into the office of Institution of Ministers, we the under-
signed, the Vestry of Christ Church, New Bern, state
with great pleasure that Mr. McRae has been nearly two
years the Rector of said church, that he has given
universal satisfaction to the whole of his congregation
and that he is duly qualified and fit to receive the said
In the vestry minutes is found a glowing tribute to
John W. Guion, secretary, who died July 18, 1840.
148 CROWN OF LIFE '
A letter of resignation was written by the minister
January 17, 1842, who said that after nearly four years
of relationship "of pleasing character," he was resigning
for "private and domestic" reasons, expecting to move
from the section the following June. 4
On the same day the vestry answered: "We feel
assured that we express the feelings of every member of
the congregation and that not one of those we represent
would on this occasion withhold the expression of their
sincere and heartfelt conviction that your duties through-
out the entire period of the charge you now resign have
been performed with a zeal, ability and faithfulness
which entitles you to the most unqualified testimonials
of their approbation and esteem." 5
The Rev. Moses A. Curtis, of Hillsboro, was called, at
a salary of $1,000, to succeed Mr. McRae, with the
approval of Bishop Ives, who came here and met with the
vestry April 9 ; but Mr. Curtis must have declined, for
Mr. Hawks was requested to preach temporarily after Mr.
McRae's departure. 6 Mr. Hawks was then in charge of
the Griffin Free School, so was residing in New Bern.
i V. M., 1837.
3 Original record in possession of the Rev. R. E. McClure, pastor
of the First Presbyterian Church, New Bern.
4 V. M., 1842.
THE REV. FORDYCE M. HUBBARD
The Rev. Forcyce M. Hubbard, of Cheraw, S. C,
formerly a New England lawyer, was called to the
rectorate on May 5, 1842. The town was described to him
as having 4,000 inhabitants "and the congregation of
Christ Church consists of (among) the most fashionable
and intelligent portion of the community." 1
The description must have appealed to him, for he
accepted the call and moved shortly to this city, probably
in June, for his first parish register notation is dated
June 30. He was allowed a leave to visit in the North
during 1843. 2
Mr. Hubbard is said to have made a number of changes
in the chancel, including the substitution of the altar for
the communion table. According to Miss Dita Roberts,
in her excellent booklet, "A Short Historical Sketch of
Christ Church Parish," he was the first local rector to
preach in his surplice without changing for an academic
gown just before the sermon. 3
While here, he taught Latin at the New Bern Academy.
From here he went in 1847, to Chapel Hill, where he acted
as a professor at the University of North Carolina until
his death. Diocesan records have numerous references to
his attendance at various conventions after his departure
from this city.
That Mr. Hubbard's relations with the vestrymen and
church members were cordial and friendly here is evident
from the tone of his letter of resignation dated June 12,
1847, in which he said that his decision to leave New Bern
was due to
"No caprice of dissatisfaction on my part, nor from any
signs of disaffection in the Parish which it has been my
happiness to serve but from a deference which is the duty
of us all to the 'godly judgment' of our revered Diocesan,
often and earnestly repeated that the interests of the
Diocese demand my services elsewhere more than here." 4
150 CROWN OF LIFE
In similar friendliness the vestrymen accepted the
resignation a few days later, "with great reluctance and
regret." They paid tribute to Mr. Hubbard's "ministra-
tions among us as a faithful teacher and servant of our
Lord and Master ... a Christian gentleman . . . has
endeared you to us in no common or ordinary degree." 5
IV. M., 1842.
2 Ibid., 1843.
3 Op. eit., pp. 14-15.
4 V. M., 1847.
THE REV. WILLIAM N. HAWKS
Next rector was the Rev. William N. Hawks, who suc-
ceeded Mr. Hubbard in 1847, at a salary of $750 a year.
He had frequently held services at Christ Church during
previous years, and had represented the congregation as
lay delegate to diocesan convention even prior to that. 1
In 1832 Hawks was reported in diocesan records as
serving St. Peter's Church, Washington as rector. 2 During
1839 he was said to be residing in New Bern again, as
teacher at the Moses Griffin school, which had been
established for poor girls, as one of the first institutions
of the kind, through bequests left by Griffin, eccentric
local miser, who died in 1816 leaving his property in the
city for the purpose. The school was incorporated in
1833, and located on George Street across from the
northern end of Cedar Grove cemetery. 3
A colored congregation was started in New Bern by
Hawks, with 70 persons, diocesan records show for 1845. 4
The next year the number of members is said to have
continued to increase. 5
Two years after that he assumed charge of Christ
Church. He also directed St. Thomas Mission, and his
reports mention it frequently. He was a true pastor,
beloved by his congregation and also by members of other
The church registers often show baptisms of the
Griffin school pupils. One entry is dated December 7,
1847, when five of the girls were baptized by Mr. Hawks.
The school teacher, Miss Areta Ellis, long active in this
capacity, acted as their sponsor. 6
The number of communicants reported to the diocesan
convention in May, 1848, was 154; including 115 white
persons and 39 colored. The next year there were 124
whites and 36 colored, or a total of 160. But the following
year there was a decrease of four members, to 156 ; con-
sisting of 122 white members and 34 colored. Two of the
152 CROWN OF LIFE
Negroes were reported to have been dropped from the
rolls for "evil living." The church members gave often to
charity and missions.
No action was taken May 25, 1851, by the vestry as
to the charges being brought against Bishop Ives, then
reported to be turning to Catholicism.
Mr. Hawks, like many of the other rectors, had
financial troubles. He had previously thanked the vestry
for $50 paid him for his substitute services, saying the
amount was all right. But in 1853 he complained to the
vestry that he did not think it fair to receive on his salary
only the proceeds from rentals of church pews. He also
complained of his heavy duties, which included teaching.
In August, 1853, he resigned. 7
Grandson of John Hawks, supervising architect of
Tryon's Palace, and brother of the brilliant Francis Lister
Hawks, D.D., and Bishop Cicero Hawks, this rector was
a member of one of New Bern's most outstanding families.
A native New Bernian, he married here Miss Sarah Coart,
on April 20, 1831, the Rev. Mr. Goodman performing the
ceremony. s He died at Columbus, Ga., where for some
time he had served as rector. 9
This rector was one of the five sons of Francis Hawks,
only son of John Hawks. The latter was a native of
Dragby, Lincolnshire, England, rather than being a Moor
from Malta as often stated erroneously. The father of
these boys served as United States Collector of Customs
for the Port of New Bern. 10 He must have been an excel-
lent father and his wife, Julie A. Stephens Hawks, must
have made a splendid mother; for their sons turned out
so well. One became a lawyer, one an educator and the
other three clergymen, including one who was a bishop
and another who was elected bishop three times.
It is related that Francis Hawks used to "tune up" his
sons every Monday morning with a whipping. If one of
the boys would demur and plead innocence, the father
would say, "Oh, you will deserve it anyway before the
week is half gone." 11
THE REV. WILLIAM N. HAWKS 153
Dr. Francis L. Hawks
Francis Lister Hawks, 12 one of the sons, studied law
under William Gaston and John Stanly here, after his
graduation from the University of North Carolina in
1815, when he was 17 years old. He also studied in a law
school at Litchfield, Conn. While practicing the pro-
fession here, he often read sermons at church services in
the absence of the rector. He is said to have possessed
"graceful elocution, mellifluous composition, and finely-
When 23 years of age, he went to the General Assembly.
He also served here as Worshipful Master of St. John's
Masonic lodge, in which he was an active member and
officer. As Reporter to the State Supreme Court, he com-
piled four volumes of North Carolina Court Records.
In 1827 he was ordained a deacon at New Bern, and
later became a priest. After serving as assistant to Dr.
Harry Croswell at New Haven and then as assistant
minister to Bishop White at St. James, Philadelphia, he
became rector of St. Stephens, New York City. In a few
months he transferred to St. Thomas Church, New York,
where he served ably for 12 years.
During 1836 he was elected historiographer of the
Episcopal Church in the United States. In this capacity
he visited Europe, especially England, to gather material
for his "Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of the
United States." He also wrote many secular histories,
including histories of his native State. He was also a
co-founder of the New York Review, and aided with the
work of many historical and literary organizations.
His appointment as missionary Bishop of the South-
west had come in 1835, but there was no endowment for
the office, so he declined. He moved to Holly Springs,
Miss., in 1843, joining a daughter there, and the next
year became rector of Christ Church at New Orleans.
Besides rebuilding that church, which he served for five
years, he helped establish the University of Louisiana and
became its first president.
The fact that he had served as literary master, spiritual
almoner and temporal head of a classical school at
154 CROWN OF LIFE
Flushing, Long Island, which had failed with its fiscal
affairs in bad shape, was used against him when he was
nominated as Bishop of Mississippi. His character was
vindicated and he was elected to the post, but he declined
to serve. Later he refused to accept appointment as
Bishop of Rhode Island.
He became rector of the Church of the Mediation in
New York, which was soon merged with Calvary Church.
With the outbreak of the War Between the States, he
resigned his Northern position, and for more than two
years served Christ Church in Baltimore. Then he re-
turned to New York to become associated with the Church
of the Annunciation. In 1865 friends organized a new
parish for him, the Church of the Holy Saviour. He died
September 27, 1866. The funeral was held from Calvary
Church, and the body was interred at Greenwich, Conn.
His first wife was a native of that State.
Long considered one of the most eloquent and renowned
preachers in America, Dr. Hawks often drew theologians
all the way from Europe to hear his sermons. Stephen
Miller wrote of him: "His gifts and labors considered
together, the ancient town of New Bern has never pro-
duced another son of such literary accomplishments to
adorn the age of her Gaston and Stanlys." 13
Frequently he came to New Bern, and throughout his
life retained a deep interest in the welfare of his native
town. He was supposed to deliver the address on the
occasion of the laying of the foundation stone for the
entrance of native shell rock at Cedar Grove cemetery,
but was unable to arrive in time for the program.
With receipts from his lecture given upon his later
arrival, a total of $130, the iron gates under the cemetery
entrance arches were purchased, reports the late Col.
John D. Whitford in his memoirs of New Bern. Colonel
Whitford says that the four lines on the marble tablet
above the main arch were taken from a special hymn
composed at the time by Dr. Hawks, 14 as follows :
"Still hallowed be the spot where lies
Each dear loved one in earth's embrace,
Our God their treasured dust doth prize,
Man should protect their resting place."
THE REV. WILLIAM N. HAWKS 155
Cedar Grove cemetery is the third important cemetery
opened here for burials during the past two centuries.
The first cemetery is said to have been located on the east
side of Craven Street, between Pollock and South Front,
about where the Taylor-Nixon house and adjoining struc-
tures are now situated. 15 Previously, in 1715, every
plantation owner had been ordered to set aside land for a
family burial plot. 16
The Episcopal church yard was the second community
cemetery here. Besides the Rev. James Reed and John
Wright Stanly, many important persons were buried
there. But the site has attained more notoriety from the
tombstone of Charles Elliott, provincial Attorney-General,
who died in 1756, because of its unique epitaph: "An
Honest Lawyer Indeed."
Also in this quiet and peaceful God's Acre, so near the
central business district of town, is the oft-quoted
"Behold and see as you pass by,
As you are now, so once was I.
As I am now, you soon must be
Prepare for death and follow me."
To a similar inscription in Massachusetts a student
"To follow you I am not content
Until I know which way you went."
In the Southeastern part of the churchyard is a marble
cross erected in 1869, through the efforts of the Hon.
M. E. Manly, to the memory of a Roman Catholic priest,
the Rev. Father Patricius (Patrick) Cleery, a native of
Ireland, who came here on a visit to settle his sister's
estate and died here in 1799 during a yellow fever
epidemic, after he had worked valiantly for the relief of
other local sufferers. The marble cross replaced a former
lightwood board over his grave, with its tribute, "he died
at his post," and the site was long tended by appreciative
members of other denominations. 17
156 CROWN OF LIFE
At the west of the front entrance walk a mother, father
and two sons are said to be buried in the same grave.
Mrs. B. R. Morris heard the story from the late Col. James
A. Bryan, who was a descendant of the family con-
James Bryan Jasper, a three-year-old boy, was drowned
in Neuse River when he fell overboard from a wharf at
the foot of Pollock Street near his home on that street.
James Jasper, his father, "ran plunging in after him with
hopes of saving his life," but was also drowned in the
attempt, on September 21, 1796. The mother and infant
son, named for the drowned brother, died on the day the
baby was born.
The church opened Cedar Grove cemetery in 1800 and
transferred it to the city in 1854. There are buried many
prominent personages, as William Gaston, William
Williams, Peter Custis, Moses Griffin, John Stanly, and
Mary Bayard Clarke, literary genius and talented poet.
Moisture is held by the "Weeping Arch" entrance of
native shell rock, and a superstition has long been that if
water drops on anyone passing under the arch he will be
the next one carried there in a hearse.
The Confederate monument in the cemetery was
erected May 11, 1885, by the Ladies' Memorial Asso-
ciation, predecessor of the United Daughters of the
Across George Street, where the new cemetery exten-
sion has been recently opened, there was a Federal
cemetery during the War Between the States prior to the
establishment of the present National cemetery farther
out that street February 1, 1867. This latter seven-and-
a-half-acre tract now has graves of 3,600 soldiers from
twenty States. Names of 1,100 are unknown. Monu-
ments to their war dead have been placed there by New
Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts.
i Vestry Minutes.
- Diocesan Journal, 1832.
3 Griffin's will probated in June, 1816, Craven County Record of
Wills, Book C; pp. 132-34. Manuscripts in private collection of the
late Mrs. Frederick C. Roberts, New Bern. Thomas, Henderson Lee,
Public Education in Craven County, thesis submitted to faculty of
THE REV. WILLIAM N. HAWKS 157
University of North Carolina, towards Master of Arts degree in
Department of Education, Chapel Hill, 1925, p. 32. Whitford, pp.
4D. J., 1845.
5 Ibid., 1846.
6 Parish Registers (hereafter cited as P. R. ), 1847.
7 V. M., 1853.
8 P. R., 1831.
9 Miller, op. cit., p. 344.
io Ibid. Whitford, op. cit., 192.
11 Whitford, 174.
12 Material on Dr. Hawks came from numerous sources, especially
references at the library of the New York Historical Society, New
York City, which he helped organize and to which he left his his-
torical collections. Miller, 247-48. Whitford, 118, 174, et passim.
13 Miller, 248.
14 Whitford, 118.
16 St. Rec, XXIII, 66-67.
17 Whitford, 207. Catholic Church Diocesan histories in the library
of the Rev. Father M. A. Irwin here.
XL 1 1
THE REV. HENRY F. GREENE
After the resignation of the Rev. William Hawks as
rector of Christ Church in 1853, the vestry extended a call
to the Rev. A. A. Watson, of Plymouth, N. C, then at
Brooklyn, N. Y., who had visited New Bern. Salary was
set at $900. But he declined to leave his "flock." 1 Later
he did become local rector, and afterwards in 1883 was
named first Bishop of the Diocese of East Carolina.
The Rev. Thomas Atkinson had been elected Bishop of
North Carolina at the 1853 convention in Raleigh, to
succeed Bishop Ives, and the local vestrymen asked him
to recommend a rector. 2
A petition signed by 68 men and women of the congre-
gation urged the vestrymen to recall Mr. McRae to the
local pulpit, but the vestry decided that this would not be
for the best interest of the parish, especially since Bishop
Atkinson had already recommended for the rectorate the
Rev. Henry F. Greene, of Baltimore. 3 Accordingly,
Greene was called and accepted, serving here for more
than three years.
Taking charge January 20, 1854, Mr. Greene soon
reported "pleasing signs of interest." He told of work
in the Sunday School, parish school and charitable
society. 4 Despite his zeal, however, he was badly handi-
capped because of ill health.
Four new pews had been added in the church, it was
reported August 10, 1854, and two pews had been en-
larged. 5 That year the vestry declared that the church
walls had been so "mutilated" by tablets it would be
necessary thereafter to get official consent by paying
$500 before any marker could be placed in the church.
Later the amount of money was omitted, but vestry
consent was still required for church tablets.
During that 1854 Summer the vestry decided to try
to get a new rectory. Consideration was given August 10
to the purchase of the property of William P. Moore on
THE REV. HENRY F. GREENE 159
Pollock Street, but it was reported unfavorably by a
committee composed of Mr. Greene, John Blackwell and
M. W. Jarvis.
On December 5 William Dunn, long secretary of the
vestry, reported for a rectory committee that they had
bargained with Dr. E. S. Hunter for his house, on the
west side of Craven Street between New and Broad
Streets. This was approved, and Mr. Dunn said that
$1,977.50 had been subscribed for the purpose. To make
up the $2,250 purchase price, $300 was lent by J. G.
Stanly on a vestry note.
Among the contributors listed were John Blackwell,
$350; John N. Washington, $250; Stanly, Jarvis, Samuel
Simpson and J. C. Justice, $200 each ; Samuel Oliver and
Mrs. Daves, $150 each; and Alex Justice, $125. 6
Although this lot was bought, it was not retained for
a rectory, being sold to George S. Stevenson for $2,500 in
In 1854 Judge George E. Badger, then United States
Senator and former Secretary of the Navy, a native of
New Bern, was asked to give the vestry an opinion as to
the chance that the parish had in getting soon the bequest
of Alice A. Thompson, of New Bern, who in 1836 had left
property to the church after the life estate of relatives. 7
It was said that the church was then entitled to twenty
slaves and one-half interest in the house and lot adjoining
the Presbyterian Church here. James W. Bryan was
employed by the vestry as its attorney in the matter;
later George S. Attmore was engaged as counsel.
A vestry resolution of June 24, 1856, paid tribute to
William Dunn, who had died. Mention was made of a
"deep sense of his worth as a man, of his usefulness as a
citizen, of his valuable services as a member of the vestry
and of our great loss by his removal from our midst."
The next year a resolution was adopted in memory of
Matthew A. Outten, vestryman, "Citizen, Friend and
The diocesan convention at Washington May 21-24,
1856, was informed that for nearly eight months there
had been no regular services at Christ Church, causing a
160 CROWN OF LIFE
deficit in the parish quota, due to the illness of the rector. 8
But Mr. Greene reported nevertheless that the Ladies
Sewing Society "without fairs or public sales" had been
able to raise "considerable sums" for the parish and for
missions. He added that he had visited church communi-
cants, that the parish "ragged school" for the poor was
then under a salaried teacher, that a Young Ladies' school
was to be opened soon, and that a Classical school with
church and secular training had been established.
The next year he told of "favorable signs of progress
and improvement." The free schools for the poor were
said to have been directed by the rector; with the Rev.
J. V. Stryker, assistant rector, in charge of the Classical
school. Mr. Stryker had been engaged to assist Mr.
Greene, because of the latter's poor health. 10
In a letter dated June 21, 1856, Mr. Greene reminded
the vestry of his "feeble and precarious state of health,"
and said that a complete rest, with change of climate, had
been advised by his physician. Accordingly, he expressed
willingness to resign as rector. 11
Instead of accepting a resignation, vestrymen on July
1 granted the rector a leave of absence for three months.
"Time will bring healing on its wings," they assured
him. 12 But, despite his Summer vacation, his condition
remained unfavorable upon his return to duty.
On April 20, 1857, he submitted his formal resignation,
because of "physical incapacity to perform duties." He
declared he was leaving the church "in a prosperous
condition," and expressed gratification that his "relations
. . . have always been those of cordial friendship to
yourselves and other members of the congregation." 13
For their part, in their reply, the vestry praised his
record: "You have raised the church in this parish to a
condition of prosperity spiritually that has not been en-
joyed for many, many years." His personality and
character were also complimented, with "veneration and
love for you as a faithful, Godfearing and conscientious
Mr. Greene was requested to keep on holding church
services, with the aid of Mr. Stryker, so long as he re-
THE REV. HENRY F. GREENE 161
mained in New Bern, even after his resignation became
effective. This he agreed to do. Mr. Stryker continued
to serve here also until July 20, 1857. From here Mr.
Greene went to Morganton, then to Raleigh, where he
died about I860. 15
4 D. J.,
5 V. M.
8 D. J.,
ii V. M.
15 Roberts, op,
Craven County Record of Deeds, Book 62; pp. 188-89.
cit., p. 15.
THE REV. THOMAS G. HAUGHTON
Again the vestry voted to call the Rev. Mr. Watson to
the local rectorate, taking this action June 18, 1857, salary
being fixed at $900 ; but a letter received from him stated
he would decline if called, so the invitation was not
formally extended. 1
The Rev. Thomas G. Haughton, of Salisbury, was asked
to become the rector of Christ Church. He accepted June
29. But, as he was busily engaged in erecting a church
at Lexington and attending to other work in his parishes,
he could not move to New Bern until September. His
salary was to be $800 a year. 2
Mr. Haughton told the diocesan convention in 1858 of
signs of improved demands for church pews, there not
being enough seats available to fill the requests. He also
told of a gradual addition to the number of male communi-
cants, and said that the free school was "flourishing"
under his direction. 3
However, after only a short rectorate, Mr. Haughton
submitted his resignation July 6, 1858. He regretted to
sever the "tie which united us so pleasantly," he wrote,
but desired to return upstate as rector of St. Luke's
Church, Salisbury. 4
"Heartfelt sorrow" was expressed by the vestry in
having to accept the resignation. It was pointed out that
Mr. Haughton during his nine months in the community
had been held in "highest esteem and respect." 5
Vestrymen at once wrote to Bishop Atkinson for advice
in trying to get a new rector as soon as possible. They
asserted that a minister was particularly needed here
during the Summer, "owing to the sickness which more
generously prevails and the deaths which more frequently
Friends again contacted the Rev. Mr. Watson to see if
he would then accept a local call. The reply must have
been favorable. For, he was unanimously called from
THE REV. THOMAS G. HAUGHTON 163
Plymouth on August 23, being offered an annual salary
of $800 and a rectory. He accepted this third call, and
said he would move here as soon as he could arrange his
business affairs. 7
In those days it required a long time to travel to New
Bern, without the modern railroads, bus service and good
roads. When Mr. Greene first came here from Baltimore
in 1854, the vestrymen advised him to come by steamship
from Baltimore to Norfolk, thence by railroad via Weldon
to Goldsboro, and then by stage from Goldsboro to New
Not until April 29, 1858, was the Old Mullet Road com-
pleted between this city and Goldsboro by the Atlantic
and North Carolina Railroad Company. A mammoth
celebration was held here that day, with addresses by
Henry W. Miller and Dr. Francis L. Hawks. 9
Yet, Bishop Atkinson and other church leaders man-
aged to come fairly often to this city. This bishop was
exceptionally popular here and elsewhere through the
diocese. His tact, personality and spirituality appealed
to all classes.
Bishop Thomas A. Atkinson
Born in Virginia August 6, 1807, Thomas A. Atkinson 10
was a great-grandson of a Church of England clergyman.
He was educated at Yale and Hampden-Sidney, then
studied law and was admitted to the bar, practicing
successfully for eight years.
During the year 1836 he was ordained an Episcopal
deacon, and the next year became a minister. Important
charges were held, at St. Paul's in Norfolk, at Lynchburg,
and then at St. Peter's Church, Baltimore. He made such
a success of this last parish that Grace Church was built
for him in Baltimore and he became its rector in 1852.
Twice he declined the Indiana bishopric; first, because
of lack of experience, and second, because he did not
believe in slavery but was sympathetic to the Southern
attitude. In 1853 he would have perhaps been made
Bishop of South Carolina but he considered slavery an
164 CROWN OF LIFE
That was the year he was called to succeed Bishop Ives
in North Carolina. He accepted, and was consecrated
that year in St. John's Chapel, New York, during the
General Convention. His influence quickly increased
through this State and the South. A degree of Doctor of
Divinity was conferred upon him by Trinity College,
Hartford ; and Doctor of Laws by the University of North
Carolina and Cambridge University.
His term of more than 27 years as Bishop, however,
was filled with political, industrial, social and religious
problems. He approved of the War Between the States
and favored the separation of the Southern Episcopal
Church from the Northern, but denied that the Act of
Secession brought that separation.
After the war, he was prominent in effecting the re-
conciliation and reunion of the churches and in restoring
confidence and peace among their members. At the 1865
General Convention he and Bishop Lay prevented any
action that might have prohibited the return of the
Southern churches on honorable terms.
Under his leadership, the Church assisted the State of
North Carolina in solving many of the reconstruction
difficulties. Tireless in his efforts, he saw the Episcopal
Church grow and spread steadily over the State.
In 1853, when he assumed the bishopric, there were 36
ministers, 42 congregations and 1,788 communicants;
seven years later, the number of communicants had been
doubled and there were 44 ministers and 53 congregations.
By 1873 there were 50 clergymen and 3,742 communi-
cants, with total contributions of $55,381.58. By 1883
there were 76 ministers and 5,889 communicants.
Some years before his death on January 4, 1881, Bishop
Atkinson consented to the election of an assistant bishop,
the Rev. Theodore Benedict Lyman, of California, who
was consecrated in 1873. Bishop Atkinson's body was
interred beneath the chancel of St. James Church, Wil-
mington, which he served as rector without giving up the
episcopate from March, 1863, to December, 1864, during
the War Between the States.
THE REV. THOMAS G. HAUGHTON 165
IV. M., 1857.
3 D. J., 1858.
4 V. M., 1858.
8 Ibid., 1854.
9 Whitford, pp. 228-29. Old newspaper accounts.
io Watson, op. cit., pp. 292-95. Marshall, op. cit., pp. 342-43. These
two constituted the chief sources for the facts about Bishop
THE REV. A. A. WATSON
One of the most beloved of all local and East Carolina
churchmen, later being named the first Bishop of the
Diocese of East Carolina, the Rev. Alfred Augustin
Watson became rector of Christ Church during the Fall
of 1858. 1
Moses W. Jarvis resigned as secretary of the vestry
March 12, 1860, after long and faithful service. In letters
he spoke of "affectionate recollections of his past connec-
tions" with the vestry. He was succeeded by William H.
In April, 1860, a lot adjoining the church property, on
the corner of Pollock and Craven Streets, was selected
for purchase, provided the cost did not exceed more than
the worth of the three county bonds and five shares of
Bank of Commerce stock derived from the sale of the old
parsonage site. 3
The vestry minutes abruptly stop May 3, 1860. Those
were stirring times of civil conflicts that ended in war.
Watson's parish registers here go into the year 1861,
when with many young men of his church he entered the
Confederate Army. As Chaplain of the Second Regiment,
North Carolina troops, his work in the hospitals and on
the battlefields makes a story of great inspiration.
During the first part of his local rectorate he took a
special interest in the parish school and worked untir-
ingly among the poor. His first report to the diocese in
1859 stated that forty children were then attending the
free school here. 4
At the diocesan convention in 1861 at Morganton
Bishop Atkinson said he had confirmed a colored person
at New Bern June 15, 1860, and eleven white persons and
one colored here May 19-20, 1861. 5
Lay delegates elected from this parish for that meeting
were Mr. Oliver, James W. Bryan, Fred C. Roberts and
Henry R. Bryan.
THE REV. A. A. WATSON 167
Dr. Watson reported for the year 57 baptisms, four
marriages, 33 funerals, 106 communicants and contri-
butions of $1,454.80. He said he had officiated occasion-
ally at camp in New Bern, and had baptized two persons
at St. Thomas Chapel near this city. 6
To the diocesan convention of 1862 Dr. Watson reported
again as rector of Christ Church and also as army
chaplain. He told of the capture of New Bern March 14,
1862, and the previous unsettled conditions and "great
obstructions to the work of the parish." 7
During the middle of the previous July, he said, he had
joined the Confederate Army but at the request of the
vestry had kept his local rectorate. In the latter part of
September, 1861, he continued, the Rev. William R.
Wetmore had been engaged as assistant rector and had
served in that capacity until the capture of New Bern.
Although Mr. Wetmore remained in New Bern, Dr.
Watson reported, he was "no longer able, consistently
with self-respect and his duty to the true government, to
perform public service. The intruders, in violation of all
Church principles, Canon law and religious liberty, then
took possession of the edifice and placed one of their own
Chaplains in it.
"By far the principal part of the congregation with-
drew from the town at the time of its capture. A few,
however, remained, and for them and for our prisoners in
the hand of the enemy Mr. Wetmore continued to per-
form such official acts as were practicable." 8
Mr. Wetmore reported 45 baptisms and 38 funerals.
There were no confirmations, as the Bishop's scheduled
visit was cancelled by the fall of New Bern. Of those
baptized, five were Confederate soldiers. Two were bap-
tized after having been wounded in the Battle of New
Bern, and died soon afterwards. Mr. Wetmore said that
the sick and wounded after the battle were cared for by
the ladies of the town. 9
Throughout the war years Dr. Watson baptized a
number of persons on Army battlefields. Some of his
baptism records here and elsewhere during the first part
168 CROWN OF LIFE
of the war are filed here among the local parish docu-
In 1863 Dr. Watson was called to Wilmington as
assistant rector at St. James Church, where Bishop
Atkinson was then acting as rector for almost two war
years. The latter retired from the rectorate in December,
1864, and Dr. Watson was unanimously elected rector, a
post he held until his election as Bishop in 1883.
Unable to accomplish much at New Bern, Mr. Wetmore
left the city. In 1863, according to diocesan records, he
was at Lincolnton and Shelby. There was no report or
representation of the local church at the convention held
that year in Fayetteville.
The New Constitution of the Protestant Episcopal
Church in North Carolina was adopted in May, 1863 ; and,
also because of the war, the canons were then revised. 10
No report, no minister and no lay delegation were
listed for Christ Church in either 1864 or 1865, while the
town remained in the hands of the Northern conquerors.
Services were held at the church from time to time by
Union Army Chaplains. Major Russell Sturgis, Jr., of
the 45th. Massachusetts Regiment here, former president
of the Boston Y. M. C. A., often held Sunday morning
services at the church, with music by a male quartet.
This major became superintendent of a Sunday school he
started there for poor children. 11
Stephen Miller quotes an excerpt from an article in
Harper's Weekly about the fall of New Bern :
"The fruits of the victory were six forts, thirty-four
heavy guns, six steam boats, and public property to the
amount of two millions of dollars . . . The next day
(March 15th) was the Sabbath. By order of Gen. Burn-
side, all the churches were thrown open, the army
chaplains officiated, and thanks were returned to God for
the signal victory he had granted the patriot armies." 12
One Post Chaplain, the Rev. J. Hill Rouse, an Episcopal
clergyman affectionately called "Father Rouse," did
valiant service here in 1864 during the yellow fever
epidemic. It was written of him:
THE REV. A. A. WATSON 169
"How you have borne up through many weeks of
constant service in thy holy calling, exposed to the
epidemic's fury, no mortal knows, but you shall rest
embalmed in the memory of those whose kindred you have
Besides Col. T. J. C. Amory, who succumbed to yellow
fever here October 6, 1864, another war disease victim
among the Unionists was George Brooks, of Massa-
chusetts, brother of the noted divine, Phillips Brooks, who
died of typhoid fever at the Stanly hospital here Feb-
ruary 10, 1863. 14
Another Massachusetts soldier stationed here during
those critical days miraculously recovered from desperate
illness to live and work for the spread of the Kingdom of
God on earth.
Dr. Russell H. Conwell, Baptist minister, who later
built up the largest Protestant church in America,
founded Temple University and two hospitals at Phila-
delphia, and helped educate 100,000 youths through
earnings from his famed lecture, "Acres of Diamonds,"
was converted from atheism to Christianity by the brave
act of his young orderly, John Ring, who lost his life in
saving Union Captain Conwell's sword after a Confederate
attack on their fort near Newport January 30, 1864, while
the officer was attending to army business at Federal
Department headquarters in New Bern. 15
During the war, books were brought here from Boston
for a library maintained by a noted Union Army chaplain,
the Rev. Dr. Andrew L. Stone. 16 The first Negro public
schools in North Carolina were opened here by the
Northerners in 1862 when New England soldiers volun-
teered as teachers. 17
The Rt. Rev. A. A. Watson, 18 D.D., LL.D., S.T.D., is still
regarded as one of the outstanding rectors of this church.
He was born in New York City April 21, 1818, and was
brought up by Presbyterian parents in the Presbyterian
Like Bishop Atkinson, he was educated and licensed
as an attorney. After being graduated from New York
170 CROWN OF LIFE
University, he studied law in the office of Chancellor Kent
and was admitted to the bar in 1841.
As a tutor for the family of Josiah Collins near Cres-
well, Dr. Watson came to North Carolina. Mr. Collins
was a loyal churchman; he was a nephew of Mrs. James
McKinlay, of New Bern. 19 Mrs. Collins, reared a Presby-
terian, had joined the Episcopal church when her first
baby was christened.
Watson became deeply impressed by the morning and
evening prayers said daily in the plantation chapel for all
the family, guests and servants. Mrs. Collins gave him
a Prayer Book and told him to mark in it anything with
which he differed and someday they would discuss those
According to a version of this story related by Mrs.
Rebecca Wood Drane, great-granddaughter of Mr. and
Mrs. Collins, 20 Watson kept the book a long time, then
finally returned it to Mrs. Collins, saying, "Mrs. Collins,
here is your book and you will not find a mark in it. There
is nothing that I would want changed."
Other books about the church were lent to him by Mrs.
Collins. He undertook an intensive study of the Episcopal
doctrines, became convinced of apostolic authority, and
decided to be baptized and confirmed.
His family "went to bed sick at heart at such departure
from family traditions, but 'once convinced nothing could
turn Brother from his decision'," Mrs. May Webb
Cranmer quotes his sister as saying. 21
After special training at the General Seminary, he was
ordained a deacon November 3, 1844. The next May 25
he was ordained priest by Bishop Ives in St. John's
Becoming rector at Plymouth, for some years he carried
on mission work through that section. Grace Church was
founded there in 1837 by the Rev. E. M. Forbes and Dr.
Samuel J. Johnston, and the church was consecrated on
the second Sunday after Easter in 1840. As rector, Dr.
Watson had the Rev. George Patterson as his assistant
there for some time.
THE REV. A. A. WATSON 171
Following his rectorate at New Bern and his war
service, when he was made rector of St. James Church,
Wilmington, he was authorized in 1865 to get an assis-
tant, and he obtained the Rev. Mr. Patterson again. Upon
organization of the Diocese of East Carolina here in 1883,
he was named its first Bishop. He died April 1, 1905.
Illustrative of his force of character and religion and
his deep devotion to the Southern government, a story is
told of how he continued to offer prayers for Jefferson
Davis, president of the Confederacy, after he returned to
his rectorate at Wilmington following close of the war.
Gen. Joseph R. Hawley, commander of the Union troops
in control of Wilmington, ordered him to stop praying for
Davis and start immediately praying for the President of
the United States. Dr. Watson fearlessly continued his
Confederate prayers, with this defiant reply to General
Hawley: "I take my orders from my Bishop and not
from a Union General." 22
i V. M., 1858.
2 Ibid., 1860.
4 D. J., 1859.
^ Ibid., 1861.
7 Ibid., 1862.
io Ibid., 1863.
ii History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer
Militia, compiled by Albert W. Mann, regimental historian, pp. 227,
12 Miller, op. cit., 467.
13 Whitford, op. cit., 322.
14 Mann, op. cit., pp. 93, 184.
15 Burr, Agnes Rush, Russell H. Conwell and His Work.
ie Mann, op. cit., p. 229.
17 North Carolina, A Guide to the Old North State, compiled and
written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Federal Works
Agency, Work Projects Administration, p. 223. Mann, op. cit., p. 230.
is Information on Bishop Watson was compiled from many dif-
ferent sources, including church histories, church paper articles and
Roberts, op. cit., pp, 16-18.
19 Record of Wills, Craven County, Book D, p. 18.
20 Mission Herald, April, 1940, p. 174.
21 Ibid., June, 1940, p. 12.
22 Moore, Louis T., "State's Historic City," article on Wilmington,
N. C, published in The Greensboro Daily News, Sunday, March 6,
THE REV. EDWARD M. FORBES
After the war the first rector here was the Rev.
Edward M. Forbes, who held the pastorate from January
1, 1866, until 1877, the third longest service of all the
local ministers. He was a native New Bernian, born here
in 1810, son of Stephen B. Forbes, who had been born in
February, 1780, and had died May 3, I860. 1
Early in life the son became partially paralyzed and
was left permanently lame. He was never quite well,
though seldom ill enough to be confined. Small in stature,
only five feet in height and 100 pounds in weight, he was
a giant in intellect. 2
Recognized as exceptionally well informed on the Bible,
he was the author of an oral catechism. Through his
entire career he "went about doing good." Industrious
and consecrated, he was one of the most beloved of all
the ministers of his time. Though poor in material things
and generous to the needy, he was thrifty and economical,
so left a considerable estate. He was never married.
On May 8, 1836, he was ordained a priest in Christ
Church, New Bern, by Bishop Ives ; at the same time the
Revs. Cameron F. McRae and Harvey Stanly were or-
dained as deacons. Mr. McRae came here as rector two
years later. Stanly was a member of the prominent local
Stanly family and became important as a priest. He held
services frequently here.
In February, 1844, Mr. Forbes preached in Mobile, Ala.,
Henry Clay being in the audience. 3 While rector of Christ
Church, Elizabeth City, where he served long and ably,
he was the presiding officer of the first convocation of the
diocese, held in 1849 at Elizabeth City.
Following his arrival here from Elizabeth City as the
rector of the reorganized congregation after the War
Between the States, he reported to the next diocesan
convention, which was held in New Bern May 30 to June
4, 1866: "I took charge of this congregation on the first
THE REV. EDWARD M. FORBES 173
of January, 1866, and found it much affected in every
way by the war." 4
All four delegates named from Christ Church attended
the diocesan meetings here: Jacob Gooding, William H.
Oliver, John Hughes and Frederick C. Roberts. Alter-
nates were William G. Hall, Henry R. Bryan and Peter
Because of the absence of Bishop Atkinson on account
of illness, the Rev. Dr. Mason presided here in his former
parish, and the Bishop's address was read by another
former local rector, the Rev. Dr. Watson. The Bishop
reported that on the previous November 26 he had con-
firmed five persons here.
For the five months that Mr. Forbes had been in the
city, he listed eleven baptisms, four marriages, and sfx
burials; with sixty white communicants, 15 colored com-
municants, and 100 catechumens. Total contributions
The next diocesan convention was held at Wilmington.
John Hughes was the only local lay delegate in attendance.
Mr. Forbes reported 103 communicants, with 29 baptisms,
a substantial gain for the year. 5
At that time he announced that all the colored com-
municants had been transferred to St. Cyprian's Church
here, with the Rev. H. A. Skinner in charge as their
rector. Two years after the start of this colored church
102 members were reported. Previously most of the
Episcopal ministers here had given much time to work
among the Negroes, and many of that race had belonged
to Christ Church.
The first African Episcopal congregation in North
Carolina had been formed at Fayetteville in 1832 under a
white rector. 6 The next year Bishop Ives mentioned
visiting the Negro congregation at New Bern, which he
said he found in a "flourishing condition." 7 Here, too,
Sunday evening services at times had been given over
"to lectures on the Scriptures and catechetical instruction
for the benefit of the coloured people," as reported in 1826
by Dr. Mason. 8 A colored congregation was again formed
in 1845 by the Rev. Mr. Hawks. 9 But the St. Cyprian
174 CROWN OF LIFE
organization soon after the War Between the States was
the first permanent one of the kind here.
Results of the work of Mr. Forbes were also evident in
1868 at Tarboro, when he reported 136 communicants and
49 baptisms. Three candidates for orders were an-
nounced: Benjamin P. Winfield, Edmund Joyner and
James W. Gray. 10
A valuable gift for this parish was also reported, the
children of the late John P. Daves having dedicated in
his memory a lot and a building for a parochial school.
This was the remaining old west wing of historic Tryon
Palace, which had been repaired by Northern friends. It
was equipped by women of the parish for the instruction
of poor children. Three rooms were used for classes, and
a fourth for a chapel.
A tablet was erected there, with this inscription: "To
the Church of the Living God. In Memory of John P.
Daves By His Affectionate Children. January, 1868."
When the Palace wing was later disposed of, this marble
marker was removed to Christ Church yard. It was
moved and reset in recent years when the parish house
addition was erected.
Also moved and reset along with the Daves tablet at
the same time was another marble marker, inscribed to
"Mary, relict of James McKinlay," who died in 1840. This
was also probably taken from its original place in the
Tryon Palace chapel. Mrs. McKinlay was Mr. Daves'
sister. 11 She is buried in the Daves plot near the entrance
in Cedar Grove cemetery.
The Daves family was long prominent here. Major
John Daves, father of John Pugh Daves, died here in
1804 and was first interred in Cedar Grove cemetery,
where a marker still stands. But the body was removed
in June, 1893, to Guilford Battleground National Park
near Greensboro. He was a captain in the North Caro-
lina Continental Line, distinguished for bravery and
gallantry at the Revolutionary engagements at German-
town, Stony Point and Eutaw Springs. Here he served
as the first Collector of the Port of New Bern, and became
THE REV. EDWARD M. FORBES \75
an original member of the State Society of the
John P. Daves died March 1, 1838. 13 A daughter of his,
Mary M. Daves, was married here August 11, 1850, 14 at
the Daves home near Tryon's Palace to John W. Ellis, of
Rowan County, Governor of North Carolina 1859-61 and
a leader of the secession movement in this State. He
died in July, 1861, at the age of 40 years.
In 1869 Mr. Forbes reported to the convention at
Raleigh that he was being assisted here by the Rev.
William B. Gordon, then a deacon, later rector at Kinston.
He told of 42 baptisms and 125 communicants, with
contributions of $2,588. 15
Besides saying that the parochial school was "con-
tinuing to prosper," Mr. Forbes announced the formation
of a "Church Relief Society" by the women of the
congregation, for the benefit of the poor. These edu-
cational and benevolent projects were always close to his
heart. Much of his time and means was used in aiding
"I am happy to state that the Laity of my Parish are
working with great energy and earnestness, and thus
contribute much to the prosperity of the Church," he
told the next convention at Edenton, when he reported
37 baptisms, 29 confirmations and 143 communicants.
"The Relief Society have been very successful and have
done much to relieve both the temporal and spiritual
wants of the poor." 16
From June to December, 1870, the Rev. James A.
Weston held services at the local church. At another
period the Rev. Mr. Eddy assisted in the parish. 17
Throughout his entire career Mr. Forbes was kind and
helpful to young ministers and ministerial students. But,
he was not narrow or bigoted about his own religion.
Once at Beaufort a theological student named Rice
became convinced that baptism by immersion was right
and necessary. Mr. Forbes had been training him for the
Episcopal ministry, but instead procured financial aid for
him and encouraged him to go to Wake Forest College to
study for the Baptist ministry. 18
176 CROWN OF LIFE
i Tombstone records in Cedar Grove cemetery.
2 Data on Mr. Forbes came from several sources, especially
Roberts, op. cit., pp. 19-20, and other references as indicated.
3 Miller, op. cit., p. 241.
4 D. J., 1866.
5 Ibid., 1867.
6 Johnson, op. cit., p. 547.
7D. J., 1833.
8 Supra, p. 127.
9 Supra, p. 151.
io D. J., 1868.
ii Record of Wills, Craven County, Book D, pp. 13-18.
12 Tombstone inscription, Cedar Grove cemetery.
13 Craven County Wills, Book C, pp. 417-18.
14 Record of Marriage Bonds, Craven County, Book B, p. 340.
is D. J., 1869.
is Ibid., 1870.
17 R R.
is Whitford, op. cit., p. 264.
Present Episcopal Church, Consecrated 1875
On the night of Tuesday, January 10, 1871, about 9 :30
o'clock, the dreaded fire alarm was sounded here. The
blaze was discovered in Hahn's Bakery, on Pollock Street,
which was then located about where Baxter's Jewelry
Store now stands, just across the street from the church.
As the flames progressed fiercely to other buildings,
sparks flew over to the shingle roof on the brick church.
Soon the southwest corner was in flames. In spite of
heroic efforts, the blaze enveloped the roof, steeple and
entire building, inside and out, with the exception of a
portion of the side brick walls. 1
When the steeple was burning, the large bell gave way
and crashed to the ground. Eye witnesses asserted that
it tolled mournfully as it fell. After the debris had been
cleared away it was found, a mass of molten metal. Many
pieces were carried away. Later the vestry permitted the
Ladies' Sewing Society to use it for the sale of souvenirs. 2
According to Miss Dita Roberts, the first donation for
a new church came from a three-year-old child, who
watched the fire and remarked to her mother, "Mama, I've
dot free cents, and I'm going to dive it to you to buy some
nails to build a new church." 3
The loss of the edifice and its contents was a terrific
calamity to the congregation and the city. Mr. Forbes
did not know of the fire until the following day. 4 As soon
as they could regain their composure, the rector and
members began at once to formulate ways and means for
A building committee was appointed. 5 Societies and
clubs started striving to raise money in various ways.
George Bishop was chosen as contractor for a new
church. 6 He was the father of E. K. Bishop, later Senior
Warden. Meanwhile, the Presbyterians offered the use of
their church on Sunday nights. 7 The George Street
Chapel in old Tryon's Palace was also used.
178 CROWN OF LIFE
Among the organizations that worked for funds was
the Juvenile Sewing Society, formed and directed by Mrs.
Sarah Bennett Carraway, wife of Major Daniel T.
Carraway, for some years an officer of the vestry. Mem-
bers of this group were girls from five years old to teen-
age. They made paper lamplighters, knitted garments
and sewed quilt squares and other articles at their weekly
meetings, selling them for the benefit of the church
In addition to contributing $100 to the building fund,
they donated at cost of $350 the main altar window of
Christ blessing the little children. They also presented an
altar chair. So outstanding was their work that the
vestry under a special complimentary resolution in 1874,
the only one of the kind in the records so far as known,
presented Mrs. Carraway with a deed for a pew, (Number
36) in the new church. 8
There are still extant copies of a small pamphlet : "The
Juvenile Sewing Society of Christ's Church, New Bern.
Answer to an Appeal. For Benefit of the Church.
Lovingly Inscribed to a Former Pastor, by Esclairmond
Claremont, N. C, Jan. 29, 1871."
Fairs and feasts also helped pay for the new structure,
which was slowly erected on the remaining walls of the
former building. A new organ, new furnishings and new
equipment were needed for the larger church. Numerous
memorials, as the windows, were given by members.
At the 1871 diocesan convention in Warrenton, Mr.
Forbes reported : "While my people bow with meek sub-
mission under this heavy visitation of the Almighty, it
gives me pleasure to state that they have gone to work
with increased energy and zeal, not only to rebuild the
Temple of the Lord but also to enlarge it, so as to become
the home of the poor and the stranger." 9
Mr. Forbes added that nothing had been neglected in
the building plans, and that work was progressing with
Sunday school and the Relief Society. He said there had
been 34 baptisms and twelve confirmations during the
previous year, and that the 156 members had contributed
$7,069.84. The church treasurer, Major Carraway, was
CHURCH FIRE 179
the only lay delegate present ; he reported that the rector's
salary of $1,100 had been paid in full.
Augustus M. Flythe was then reported as a candidate
for Holy Orders from New Bern, and at the 1872 con-
vention in Salisbury he was said to be a deacon residing
at New Bern as a missionary to nearby points. He told
of 24 communicants at St. Thomas Church in Craven
County, and said he also often visited Kinston. 10
Another candidate from here, Alexander Bass, was
mentioned by Mr. Forbes, another illustration of the
rector's splendid influence over young men. He also told
the convention that an additional $5,076 had been raised
for the church building fund during the year, $772 for
the Relief Society, and $580.52 for the Sunday School.
Despite lack of a church, the parish work went forward
along practically every line. In 1874 the bishop reported
that he had preached here and confirmed twenty persons. 11
During that Summer the Rev. N. E. Price held services
for four Sundays and the Rev. C. 0. Brady preached on
Sunday, July 5. 12
The 1875 convention met May 19-21 in the new church
at New Bern. The Rev. Mr. Price, then a deacon, was
reported to be assisting the local rector. There were 173
church members listed; with 90 white and 180 colored
students in the parochial schools. 13
By that time the church had been completed, with the
exception of the steeple, which was added some years later
by gift of Miss Anne Donnell, a former member, then
living in New Jersey, who had previously donated a
window and a new bell. 14
On Sunday, May 23, 1875, the church was consecrated
by Bishop Atkinson. Also in attendance were Bishop
Lyman and a large number of clergymen. Proper papers
were presented by Senior Warden Jacob Gooding; and
signed by him and the other vestrymen: William H.
Oliver, John Hughes, D. T. Carraway, Joseph Fulford,
Henry R. Bryan and George Roberts. During the service
the Rev. Mr. Windley was ordained a deacon. 15
The interior architecture of the church is still con-
sidered unique. The high turtle-back ceiling must have
180 CROWN OF LIFE
steel supports all the way across from side to side, for
there are no inner supports. The roof is of slate. Gothic
designs are evident in the chancel, windows, pews, chairs
and other features, except the Roman front doorways.
A number of changes have been made since then in the
church. A front porch was built in 1884 in memory of
Miss Elizabeth Peterson, who in 1876 willed the necessary
funds. About 1914 the Rev. B. F. Huske, then rector,
had charge of extending and enlarging the chancel and
choir stalls, making decided improvements. The parish
house was built during the first decade of the next
century, and the church was then again extensively
renovated. The parish house addition was constructed
during the past few years, and the sacristy in 1939.
Mr. Forbes had resigned as rector here the night before
the church fire, but as soon as he learned of that disaster
the next day he decided to remain here and devote his
energies to the task of rebuilding. His resignation was
again submitted May 25, 1875, but the vestry unanimously
declined to accept it. 16
Later he again resigned, effective January 1, 1877, but
offered to continue as acting rector until a successor could
be obtained. 17 So much difficulty was experienced in
getting another minister that he severed his local con-
nection April 29, 1877. The Rev. T. B. Haughton, study-
ing here under him, was engaged temporarily; and Mr.
Forbes was requested to assist occasionally. 18
In March of that year another deep loss was sustained
by the parish in the death of Mr. Gooding, long Senior
Warden and active church leader. The vestry adopted
resolutions highly extolling him.
The organ was installed in the church that year.
Vestrymen recorded thanks for the financial aid of the
Sunday School pupils who made its purchase possible and
of the Old Dominion Steam Ship Company and the
Merchants and Miners Line which transported it here
free of charge from Boston. 19
As this was a second-hand musical instrument when
brought here, it is now probably one of the oldest pipe
organs in the country. It was made by the Jardine Organ
CHURCH FIRE 181
Company, one of the first pipe organ builders. Originally,
the pipes were of wood, and the old pump had to be
worked by hand before the installation of electricity. An
old traction type, it still corresponds to the ox cart method
of transportation as compared to the more modern organs ;
but organ experts highly praise its music and assert that
its tones can not be reproduced today.
For a time after leaving Christ Church, Mr. Forbes
assisted here at St. Cyprian's Church, which he had so
helpfully sponsored. He is even said to have given this
church to the Negroes. 20 Formerly it had been the first
Baptist church here, completed by 1812.
The last years of Mr. Forbes' life were spent as rector
of St. Paul's Church, Beaufort. He died at Beaufort
September 25, 1893, at the age of 83. The funeral was
held the next day from Christ Church here and he was
buried in New Bern.
His keen interest in this parish and diocese, as well as
his unfailing desire to aid the poor and unfortunate, were
exemplified in his will. Among his many bequests were
the following: to the diocese all his property not other-
wise devised, $250 annually for missionaries in the diocese
and $1,000 for loans to ministerial students; $50 for
foreign and domestic missions ; $50 for the widows and
orphans of diocesan clergymen; funds to insure St.
Cyprian's colored church and St. Augustine School near
Raleigh; $115 annually for a scholarship for diocesan
ministerial students at St. Augustine's School, this insti-
tution also being left his books; $25 annually for the
Christ Church Relief Society; $5 annually for a Thanks-
giving Day dinner for the poor here ; and $5 annually for
the poor here on Christmas or Holy Innocents Day. 21
Resolutions passed by the vestry for Mr. Forbes read in
part, as follows: "Resolved: that the parish of Christ
Church will cherish in loving memory his faithful per-
formance of duty as its rector for a period of eleven years.
His valuable services in organizing the congregation after
the disturbance of the late war; the instituting of
Memorial Chapel with the Parochial and Sunday Schools ;
the organizing of Christ Church Relief Society; his zeal
182 CROWN OF LIFE
and energy in rebuilding the Church after its destruction
by fire in 1871 will always be kept in mind together with
grateful recollections of his solace in griefs; his godly
counsel in troubles; his encouragement in despair; his
affectionate appeals to erring ones ; his admonition, advice
and sympathy to all who were in 'sorrow, need, sickness
or any other adversity' ; and especially his great interest
in the training of the young; and care for the temporal
and spiritual necessities of the poor." 22
i Accounts of eye-witnesses.
2 V. M., January 23, 1871.
3 Roberts, op. cit., p. 19.
4 Whitford, op. cit., p. 270.
5 V. M., January 18, January 20, January 30, 1871. The minutes
show that Bishop Atkinson attended the January 20 meeting.
6 V. M., February 5, 1872.
7 Ibid., January 12, 1871. A reply of appreciation is recorded
8 Ibid., June 8, 1874.
9 D. J., 1871.
io Ibid., 1872.
ii Ibid., 1874.
12 P. R., 1874.
13 D. J., 1875.
14 V. M., December, 1871.
15 Ibid., special note, dated May 23, 1875.
16 Ibid., correspondence in those years published in the records.
17 Ibid., December 4, 1876.
18 Ibid., Note recorded Julv 18, 1877.
19 Ibid., 1877.
20 Whitford, op. cit., p. 265.
21 Record of Wills, Craven County, Book F, pp. 109-16.
22 V. M., 1893. Vol. 3, pp. 153-55.
THE REV. CHARLES S. HALE
The Rev. Charles Stuart Hale became rector of Christ
Church in October, 1877. A native of New England, he
came here from Buffalo, N. Y.
That he was an outstanding clergyman is proved from
a copy of the resolution sent here by the Secretary of the
Standing Committee of the Diocese of Western New
York, regretting the loss of his "faithful and efficient
services" and praising his "high character, manly
Christian course and clear unflinching adherence to
church principles." 1
One of the main accomplishments during his three and
a half years here was the organization of the Altar Guild,
composed of church leaders who worked for the extension
of God's Kingdom in many, sundry ways.
Formed early in 1878, the guild had John S. Long for
its first warden; George E. Tinker, vice warden; Henry
C. Pool, registrar; and John D. Hughes, treasurer. The
group was reorganized in 1881 when the Rev. Van Winder
Shields was rector. 2
In 1878 Mr. Hale reported 234 communicants. For the
Sunday School he listed 95 pupils, with twenty teachers
and five officers. The parish school had forty-seven
students. The church was said to be worth $35,000 and
the chapel $3,000, with debts of $600. At that time the
Bishop wrote that on a Palm Sunday visit here he had
"observed with pleasure the marked progress of the
Vestry minutes contain "exalted appreciation of his
pious and devoted zeal" in referring to George H. Roberts
as treasurer. Praise is also given to F. C. Roberts for his
able service as secretary. They mention the renting of
the "Memorial Chapel" in 1876 to Miss Kate Carraway
and Prof. G. W. Neal for use as a high school.
184 CROWN OF LIFE
During the Summer of 1880 Mrs. Louise Weed Hale,
wife of the rector, died in Asheville. White altar hang-
ings for the church were given in her memory. 4
That October Mr. Hale tendered his resignation. He
explained that he felt physically unable to continue the
duties, having had malaria during the entire time he had
been here. The resignation became effective November
28. With regret it was accepted by the vestrymen, who
declared he had given "so much satisfaction to the con-
gregation as well as benefit to the cause of religion and
the advancement of the welfare of the church." 5
Petitions signed by 133 members of the congregation
urged the vestrymen to reconsider their acceptance of the
resignation. The vestry did this, and Mr. Hale stayed on
for several months. On March 3, 1881, he again resigned,
effective after Easter, to accept a call to Trinity Church,
Claremont, N. H.
The vestry on January 16 of that year passed reso-
lutions of respect for Bishop Atkinson, who had died
January 4. They paid tribute to "his dignity, his great
natural endowment, his sound learning, his eloquence, and
logical power as a preacher, his executive ability, his
boldness as a defender of the truth, his purity and
elevation of character, his meekness and saintliness as a
disciple and an apostle." 6
Resolutions of appreciation were also passed for the
Rev. James C. Atkinson, who was thanked for his frequent
aid to this parish. He was leaving the diocese to go to
i V. M., October, 1877.
2 V. M., 1878. Organization minute book.
3D. J., 1878.
4 V. M., 1880.
6 Ibid., 1881.
'Ibid., March 9, 1881.
THE REV. VAN WINDER SHIELDS
The Rev. Mr. Shields, then serving at Kittrell, N. C,
was called to the local pulpit in 1881. He arrived April
21, conducted services here on Sunday, April 24, then left
the next day to bring his family to the city. 1
During his eight years' stewardship he was greatly
beloved for his character and admired for his work. He
was a true friend to all in trouble or need.
Including children, 292 members were listed for the
church in 1883. By 1889 the number had grown to 305,
including children. When revised, however, the lists
showed only 227 active members. 2
Late in December, 1885, vestrymen recommended that
the church pews be made free. There had been difficulty
in collecting the rental fees anyway. In a vote at a
congregational meeting, 13 favored this step, six opposed
it and two expressed willingness to be governed by the
majority. These 21 votes were so few that the vestry
decided to abandon their attempt for free seats. 3
It was during this rectorate that the front porch was
added to the church. The steeple was also completed, and
a bell placed there. All were gifts. In 1886 an organ and
a communion cup were presented to Grace Church,
Mr. Shields resigned his office in September, 1889. A
committee was appointed by the vestry to ask him to re-
consider, but he said his decision was final; so the
resignation was accepted September 3, with this
"Whereas, the pleasant relations existing for over eight
years between the Rev. V. W. Shields and the members
of Christ Church Parish must in the providence of God be
sundered, we the vestry express in this official and
emphatic manner our profound regret at this unexpected
event, and tender to Mr. Shields and his family our cordial
appreciation and sympathy, and pray that in their new
186 CROWN OF LIFE
field of labor they may enjoy a large measure of useful-
ness and of that peace which 'passeth understanding'." 4
From here Mr. Shields went to Jacksonville, Fla., where
he was rector of St. John's Church until 1924 and rector
emeritus until his death there May 13, 1927. He was a
native of Rokeby Plantation in Jefferson County, Miss.,
born there July 3, 1849, so lived to be almost 78 years of
Organization of the Diocese of East Carolina had been
perfected here at Christ Church on December 12 and 13,
1883, during Mr. Shield's ministry. This was the second
diocese to be formed here, a unique record for the parish. 5
For a number of years Bishop Atkinson had advocated
a division of North Carolina into two dioceses. After his
death, this plan was voted May 10-14, 1882, at a regular
meeting of the Diocese of North Carolina at Tarboro.
Permission to form the new diocese was granted October
9, 1883, by the General Convention at Philadelphia.
The Rt. Rev. Theodore Benedict Lyman, D. D., who had
succeeded the late Bishop Atkinson after having served
as assistant Bishop of North Carolina, called the conven-
tion of the new diocese to order. After divine service and
communion, the Rev. Dr. Watson, former local rector,
then of Wilmington, was elected convention president;
and the Rev. Nathaniel Harding, secretary- Many names
were suggested for the new diocese, "East Carolina"
Dr. Watson was selected as the first Bishop. He was
consecrated April 17, 1884, in St. James Church, Wilming-
ton, of which he had been rector for 21 years. The
consecrator was a native Wilmingtonian, the Rt. Rev.
William Mercer Green, Bishop of Mississippi. He was
assisted by Bishop Lyman of North Carolina and Bishop
Howe of South Carolina. In his first Episcopal address
the new Bishop of the new diocese stressed unity of
interest, saying the growth of each parish was necessary
for the best results in all the other churches as well as in
the diocese, the ecclesiastical unit.
Bishop Lyman continued to serve the Diocese of North
Carolina until his death in 1893, when he was followed by
THE REV. VAN WINDER SHIELDS 187
the late Rt. Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, in turn suc-
ceeded by the present bishop, the Rt. Rev. E. A. Penick.
Bishop Lyman, born in Massachusetts in 1815 and
educated at Hamilton College and the General Theological
Seminary, had served in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Italy,
California and elsewhere before coming to North Carolina
to assist Bishop Atkinson for the last eight years of the
latter's life. From 1783 to 1883 Episcopal clergymen
increased from 50 to 76 in North Carolina and communi-
cants from 3,742 to 5,889. 6
At a joint convention of the Dioceses of North Carolina
and East Carolina held in May, 1890, at Tarboro, the
historic communion service of Christ Church was used. 7
By then there were reported to be 85 Episcopal clergymen
in this State, with 7,500 communicants, of whom 4,400
were in the North Carolina Diocese and 3,100 in the East
Carolina Diocese. 8
i V. M., April, 1881.
2 P. R.
3 V. M., 1885. Vol. 3, pp. 29-33. (Pages in this third extant hook
of vestry minutes are numbered consecutively, so may be referred to
exactly from now on. The first book of minutes of the vestry, now
in possession of the church, begins May 7, 1830, and extends to the
time of the War Between the States. The second book begins April
24, 1866, and lasts through April 7, 1884. Volume 3 begins May 2,
1884, and goes to December 8, 1902. Volume 4 covers February 2,
1903, to February 7, 1921. Volume 5, from May 25, 1921, to December
13,1938. Volume 6, from then on.)
4 V. M., Vol. 3, p. 55.
5 Information about this meeting is taken from articles by Judge
Francis D. Winston, of Windsor, and Mrs. A. M. Waddell, of Wil-
mington, published in the New Bern Sun-Journal Jubilee Edition,
May 17, 1933.
6 Marshall, op. cit., p. 343, et passim.
7 Cheshire, Sketches, "The Joint Centennial Convention," p. 12.
s Marshall, op. cit., p. 343.
THE REV. T. M. N. GEORGE
Mr. Shields' resignation was to become effective the
first Sunday in Advent, 1889, so well before that time the
vestry instructed Secretary E. K. Bishop to notify Bishop
Watson and Junior Warden George H. Roberts to open a
correspondence in regard to procuring a new rector.
At an early special meeting it was voted to extend a
call to the Rev. Thomas Mordint Nelson George, of
Durham. Mr. Roberts, by then named Senior Warden to
succeed the late Maj. John Hughes, was requested to write
him. Judge Henry R. Bryan was named Junior Warden
succeeding Mr. Roberts.
The acceptance of Mr. George, written October 12, was
read to the vestry November 4, his rectorship to begin
January 1, 1890. Plans were at once set in motion towards
obtaining a new rectory. 1
The old rectory on George Street was sold to Sam Duffy
for $1,500." Meanwhile, a house was rented on Broad
Street. In April, 1891, after Mr. George and his family
had been residing here for some time, a site on Pollock
Street, to the east of the church, was approved for a new
rectory, and plans for the proposed dwelling were drawn
by Architect Herbert Simpson. 3
Bishop Watson approved this location. But many
members of the parish objected to putting a rectory "on
any part of the church yard." A petition to that effect
was signed by twenty-eight members, and others also
expressed opposition. Hence, a lot on the west side of
Craven Street, adjoining the church property, was bought
from the New Bern Academy. 4
Contributions were collected for the purpose, and the
two-story frame rectory was built there. Several years
later the Federal Government erected a postoffice on the
adjoining corner lot. That building is now the City Hall.
The rectory has been moved to its neighboring lot to the
THE REV. T. M. N. GEORGE 189
During the school year of 1891 it was reported that 23
boys and 17 girls attended the parish school, their terms
ranging from four to 119 days. Mrs. Hannah Harrison,
a Griffin School girl, was then principal. 5 The Griffin
School, long operated here, was considered practically an
Episcopal institution, so closely associated was it with the
In March, 1895, the vestry met to confirm the sale of
the Mission Chapel, "the old Palace outbuilding," by the
Christ Church Relief Society to Francis S. Duffy for
$1,900. A committee was named to investigate the cost
of a new chapel and school. 6 The parish school was
moved from the Palace wing to two rooms elsewhere, but
the chapel was still used temporarily for a Sunday School.
Erection of a new chapel was begun by May on a lot
situated on the south side of Pollock Street, west of Burn,
a part of the property bequeathed to the Diocese by Mr.
Forbes and lent to the parish without charge by the
Diocese. Mrs. Margaret D. Nelson donated the new
structure and presented the belfry and bell. 7 Upon its
completion, it was named All Saints Chapel, and services
were long held there regularly. It is now used as a
nursery school for underprivileged children of that part
of town. Bishop Thomas C. Darst deconsecrated the
Many other memorials were presented to the church
and chapel at that period. Women of the parish requested
and received permission to erect an iron fence at their
own expense, to replace the wooden fence. Mrs. Lucretia
Guion Dunn was treasurer for the women's committee.
Mrs. Mary McKinlay Nash, Graham Daves, Jane
Graham Hughes and Jennie Daves Hughes offered in
memory of their sister and aunt, Mrs. Ann Daves McLean,
the sum of $500, if efforts were made to wipe out the
church's floating debt and try to prevent its repetition. 8
As early as 1893 there had been mention of the needs
for a parish house. On February 17, 1903, a special
session of the vestry was called to discuss the possibility
of procuring such a building. 9
190 CROWN OF LIFE
A motion was passed to try to raise $10,000, half for a
parish house and the remainder for church improvements.
On a committee for this purpose were named Mrs. Nelson,
Mrs. George H. Roberts, Mrs. Mary D. Windley, Mrs.
Charles Duffy, Miss Mary Oliver, E. H. Meadows, J. A.
Bryan, E. K. Bishop, Mark Disosway and M. deW. Steven-
son. For a building committee were appointed Messrs.
Roberts, Bryan and Meadows.
The next month drawings of the proposed parish house
were submitted by Architect Simpson. 10 Progress was
reported slowly thereafter, as construction was under-
taken. In November, 1904, the vestrymen were notified
that the work had been stopped on account of lack of
funds. 11 It was completed later. 12 The church was also
renovated and rearranged on the interior. The organ was
moved from the gallery to the east front of the church,
and the chancel was also otherwise re-equipped. 13
Mr. George was ill in a Boston hospital during the last
part of 1904, having been taken sick there while attending
the General Convention. 14 On May 2, 1905, he tendered
his resignation, to accept a call to St. James Church,
Marietta, Ga., because his health necessitated a change
of climate. The resignation became effective the first
Sunday in June.
Resolutions were adopted by the vestry, in tribute to
the rector: "His piety and devotion to duty will be long
remembered in this Parish, and his Kindness and gentle-
ness will be cherished by all." 15
Much work was accomplished in the parish during his
rectorship of more than fifteen years. Besides the build-
ing programs for the church, chapel and parish house, a
Girls Friendly Society was organized here by Mr. George
May 1, 1904. 16 A vested choir was first formed here also
in that year. Three original members still assisted with
the church music in 1940, Mrs. Garrason A. Farrow, for
many recent years organist; Mrs. C. T. Ward and Miss
The Rev. Mr. George had been born in Marietta March
25, 1858, and thus returned to his native city. He was
the son of a minister, and had two brothers in the
THE REV. T. M. N. GEORGE 191
ministry. Not only by all ages and classes of his own
church was he beloved, but also by members of all
After his death in February, 1908, a memorial service
was held here during a meeting of the Wilmington Con-
vocation. A tribute to him by the rector at that time, the
Rev. J. H. Brown quoted: "Mark the perfect and behold
the upright man, for the end of that man is peace." 17
IV. M., 1889.
2 V. M., Vol. 3, pp. 61-62.
3 Ibid., 87-92.
4 Ibid., 96-100.
5 Ibid., 99, 125.
6 Ibid., 188.
1 1bid., 195-96, 266.
8 Ibid., 252.
9 Ibid., Vol. 4, pp. 4-5.
io Ibid., 6.
ii Ibid., 22.
12 Ibid., 28-29, 34.
is ibid., 26-27.
14 Ibid., 22-23.
15 Ibid., 30-33.
is Roberts, op. cit., p. 23.
17 Ibid., p. 24.
THE REV. L G. H. WILLIAMS
The Rev. L. G. H. Williams, of Americus, Ga., accepted
a call to the Christ Church rectorate in the Fall of 1905.
He met with the vestry for the first time on November 6. 1
As their first act, the vestrymen turned over to the
rector the completion of the parish house. This task the
newcomer undertook with characteristic energy and
interest, and it was used that Christmas for the annual
Christmas tree exercises of the Sunday School. 2
At a meeting of the parish December 4 the rector
requested that the number of vestrymen be increased
from seven to nine, and this was done. 3 When the vestry-
men organized later that month, Mr. Roberts was renamed
Senior Warden; Judge Bryan, re-elected Junior Warden;
Charles L. Stevens, clerk; and John R. B. Carraway,
re-elected treasurer. 4
Because of his ill health, Mr. Williams was granted a
leave of absence between August and October, 1906. 5
Following his return, at the annual parish supper in"
December, he reported many achievements, including the
completion of the parish house. He warned against the
danger of becoming "too well satisfied," for he declared
that plenty of work remained for all. As for himself, he
did his part earnestly, working especially among the poor
of the entire city. 6
The following October, in 1907, after two years' service,
Mr. Williams resigned as rector, effective in December,
due to the climatic conditions which were not satisfactory
for his health or that of his family. The vestry went on
record in sympathy with the minister because of the ill-
ness of his wife, and accepted his resignation with regret. 7
Bishop Robert Strange, who had succeeded the late
Bishop Watson, made suggestions as to Mr. Williams'
successor here; and on January 10, 1908, met here with
the vestry. A call was then extended to the Rev. John
H. Brown, of Fernandina, Fla. 8
Christ Church Altar
THE REV. L. G. H. WILLIAMS 193
Bishop Robert Strange
The Rt. Rev. Dr. Strange had been born in Wilmington
December 6, 1857. His father was Col. Robert Strange,
a prominent lawyer, who had served with distinction in
the Confederate Army. His mother was Carolina Wright,
daughter of Dr. Thomas H. Wright, prominent at Wil-
mington and long identified with St. James Church.
After attending the Horner and Graves school at Hills-
boro, he was graduated at the University of North
Carolina in the Class of 1879. He was confirmed by
Bishop Atkinson November 20, 1877 ; and in 1880 applied
as a candidate for Holy Orders in the Diocese of North
Carolina. Three years later he went to Brunswick
County, Virginia, as a catechist and lay missionary.
When Dr. Watson, his former rector, became the first
Bishop of the new Diocese of East Carolina, Strange
attended the consecration in St. James Church. Three
days afterwards, Sunday, April 20, 1884, he was ordained
to the diaconate there by Bishop Watson.
Following a trip to Europe, Mr. Strange was called to
the Church of the Good Shepherd at Raleigh. There on
November 15, 1885, he was advanced to the priesthood by
Bishop Lyman. For more than a year he served in the
State Capital, then accepted a call to his mother church
at Wilmington. While rector there at St. James from
1887 to 1900, he was given a degree of Doctor of Divinity
by the University of North Carolina.
For four years he served as rector of St. Paul's Church,
Richmond. Then he was named the second Bishop of the
Diocese of East Carolina. He was consecrated at St.
James Church on All Saints Day in 1904. The main
sermon of the occasion was preached by Bishop Randolph
of Southern Virginia. For a decade he labored success-
fully through the Diocese. He died August 23, 1914. His
body was also interred under the chancel at St. James
i V. M., Vol. 4, p. 38.
2 Roberts, op. cit., pp. 24-25.
194 CROWN OF LIFE
3 V. M., Vol. 4, p. 39.
5 Ibid., 49.
7 IMd., 59-60.
THE REV. JOHN H. BROWN
Mr. Brown accepted the local call, and began a two-year
rectorate in March, 1908. x Before his arrival, the rectory-
was renovated. 2
As one of the most important public steps ever taken
by the congregation, the church pews were made free in
1910, instead of being rented as they had been previously.
This change had been suggested in 1885, and again in
1894 and 1898, without definite results. The vestry ap-
proved such a plan in 1909, and the next month their
recommendation was accepted by the membership at a
parish meeting on January 17, 1910. 3
The Carolina Churchman was started in 1909, by
merging The Mission Herald and The Messenger of Hope ;
and Mr. Brown served capably as assistant editor. He
was a trustee of the University of the South at Sewanee,
Tenn. ; and also acted as Chairman and Field Secretary of
the East Carolina Sunday School Commission. 4
Many accomplishments along varied lines were reported
for those years. The altar in the parish house was pre-
sented to the Episcopal mission at Burgaw. Church
attendance here was reported to be good, the rector
preaching excellent sermons and conducting the rituals in
unusually impressive and inspiring manner.
In May, 1910, Mr. Brown resigned the local post to
accept a call to Christ Church, Pensacola, Fla. A reso-
lution passed by the vestry praised him as "an able
preacher of the gospel and a learned theologian," and
expressed gratitude for "the good work that has been
accomplished by Mr. Brown in the parish." 5
During that Summer New Bern staged one of the most
elaborate celebrations in State history, in a week's
programs commemorating the bi-centennial of the found-
ing of the city in 1710. The North Carolina State
Firemen's Association held the annual convention and
196 CROWN OF LIFE
tournament here at the same time, adding to the enter-
tainment events that drew thousands of people.
i v. M., Vol. 4, p. 69.
2 Ibid., 68.
3 Ibid., 41, 86. Supra, p. 185.
4 Roberts, op. cit., p. 25.
5 V. M., May 18, 1910, Vol. 4, pp. 95-96.
THE REV. B. F. HUSKE
An invitation was sent in July, 1910, to the Rev.
Bartholomew F. Huske, of St. Paul's Church, Greenville,
originally from Fayetteville, to succeed Mr. Brown as local
rector October l. 1 This call was accepted, and for seven
years he served the parish.
A decade prior to the passage of the equal suffrage
amendment to the Federal Constitution to give women
the ballot politically, which went into effect August 26,
1920, it was voted here at a parish meeting on November
28, 1910, to follow "an old-time custom" in allowing "such
ladies as were contributors to the church to be allowed to
cast ballots" for vestrymen. 2
The next year, however, the vestry decided that future
elections should be conducted under the church canons
which then required that voters should be baptized male
adults in special registrations. 3 That canon was changed
by 1913. 4 In 1912 the number of vestrymen was increased
again, this time from nine to twelve. 5
Grace Chapel was opened in Riverside during 1913. The
lot was donated by William Dunn, Sr. Materials were
given by lumber men and building supply dealers. 6 It
was finally dismantled in 1919, after comparatively short
When the Episcopalians before that year had discon-
tinued their Sunday School in that section of the city, the
Riverside Methodist Sunday School was permitted to use
their chapel. After the Riverside Methodists decided to
build a new church, the old structure was moved to
Grantham on the Morehead City road, where for some
time it has been used by the Presbyterians.
Repairs to the church, with construction of a recess
chancel, were authorized by the vestry in 1913. 7 Messrs.
Roberts, Bishop, and Thomas D. Warren were named on
a committee for the purpose. 8 William W. Griffin was
elected treasurer for a church improvement fund. 9 The
198 CROWN OF LIFE
Rev. J. N. Bynum was engaged to assist with local mission
work during that Summer. 10
Upon motion of Mr. Bishop, an Every Member Canvass
was held in December, 1914, to increase church funds and
raise money for missions. This started an annual custom,
since then followed by other local churches. 11 Resolutions
of respect were adopted for the late Capt. Wentworth S.
Simmons, long a vestryman and church official. 12
The Diocesan Council was held at New Bern in the
Spring of 1915. 13
On April 8, 1917, a special meeting of the vestry was
held with the rector, with reference to his departure for
service as Chaplain of the North Carolina Naval Reserves,
upon entry of the United States in the World War. He
was allowed an indefinite leave of absence. 14
During his service here a Woman's Auxiliary and a
Junior Auxiliary were formed among the members of All
Saints Chapel, with the aid of the Christ Church women.
A sewing and cooking school were also started. 15
The centennial anniversary celebration of the organi-
zation of the Diocese of North Carolina here in 1817 was
held in Christ Church on May 17, 1917. Three Bishops
were present for the ceremony — Bishop Joseph B.
Cheshire of Raleigh ; Bishop Junius M. Horner, of Ashe-
ville; and Bishop Thomas C. Darst, of Wilmington, who
had succeeded Bishop Strange in the Diocese of East
A handsome bronze tablet was unveiled as a gift to
Christ Church from the two dioceses and the missionary
district of Asheville. It still has an honored place on the
west wall near the baptismal font. Its inscription begins :
"To the glory of God and in commemoration of the
100th anniversary of the organization of the Diocese of
Names of the nine Episcopalians who met in New Bern
and organized the first Diocese of North Carolina in 1817
are also on the tablet : the Rev. Bethel Judd, Fayetteville,
president ; the Rev. Adam Empie, Wilmington, secretary ;
the Rev. Jehu Curtis Clay, of New Bern ; John Rutherford
London and Marsden Campbell, of Wilmington; John
THE REV. B. F. HUSKE 199
Stanly and John Spence West, of New Bern; Josiah
Collins, Edenton ; and John Winslow, Fayetteville.
The Rev. Guy H. Madara was named acting rector of
the parish during the Fall of 1917, Mr. Huske resigning
here to remain in the service of the country as a Chaplain
in the regular Navy. The question of a permanent suc-
cessor was postponed until the visit of Bishop Darst. 17
Following his retirement from the Navy, as a Lieu-
tenant-Commander, after service on the seas and as
assistant chaplain at the United States Naval Academy
at Annapolis, Md., Dr. Huske visited New Bern on various
occasions. He still ranked as an officer in the Naval
Reserves, and held a degree of Doctor of Divinity.
For some years after his naval service he was rector
of St. Mary's Church, Kinston, then maintained his head-
quarters and home in his native city of Fayetteville, while
serving as rector of Grace Church, Whiteville, and Trinity
i V. M., Vol. 4, p. 93.
2 Ibid., 102.
3 Ibid., 118.
4 Church Histories.
5 V. M., Vol. 4, pp. 134-35.
6 Ibid., 138, 141.
9 Ibid., 147.
io Ibid., 143, 145.
11 Ibid., 162-63.
12 Ibid., 165.
13 Ibid., 167.
14 Ibid., 201.
15 Roberts, op. cit., p. 26.
16 V. M., Vol. 4, p. 204. New Bern Sun-Journal files, May, 1917.
17 V. M., Vol. 4, pp. 207, 208, 212-13.
THE REV. DANIEL G. MACKINNON
The Rev. Daniel G. MacKinnon, S. T. D., accepted the
rectorship of this parish in October, 1917, and arrived
during December from St. Bartholomew's parish, Phila-
delphia. 1 Among his earlier charges was a rectorate "at
At his first meeting with the parishioners, vestrymen
agreed to support him in the church school by attending
his Bible class on Sunday mornings. 2
During his entire stay here, he did much work among
the men of the congregation, drawing them to the Sunday
night services and holding special suppers for them from
time to time. The Brotherhood of St. Andrew was
When the Rotary Club was organized in 1920 the parish
house was used for the men members, and since then has
been the main meeting place for their supper sessions,
women of the church preparing and serving the suppers.
For some time recently Mrs. H. C. Lumsden has been in
general charge. The kitchen and serving room have been
much improved in space, arrangement and equipment.
In March, 1919, Mr. Bishop was again elected Junior
Warden, 4 to succeed the late Judge Bryan, who had served
in this capacity for many years until his death and who
was warmly praised in vestry resolutions. 5
Mr. Roberts passed away in 1922, after service as a
vestryman for 48 years and Senior Warden for 33 years.
Appropriate tributes were offered to his memory by the
Named April 3, 1922, to succeed Mr. Roberts as Senior
Warden, Mr. Bishop has held that office ever since. J. G.
Dunn, Sr., long a member of the vestry with lengthy
service as treasurer, succeeded Mr. Bishop as Junior
Warden. 7 When he became ineligible for re-election to
the vestry, Charles H. Stith became Junior Warden; and
THE REV. DANIEL G. M'KINNON 201
later Frank F. Fagan was named, serving at the present
George H. Roberts, Jr., who has long served on the
vestry, being first named the month before his father's
death, 8 was elected secretary or clerk, upon the removal
of W. G. Boyd from the city after long and efficient secre-
tarial service. 9 He was followed shortly as clerk by J. E.
Boswell, who was named to the vestry in Mr. Boyd's
place. J. C. Bagg was later elected clerk, then L. A.
Stith, and J. Haywood Jones. J. G. Dunn, Jr., has for
some time served as treasurer, following his father, J. G.
Dunn, Sr., and J. E. Boswell.
The matter of building an extension to the parish house
for needed church school purposes was considered in
1923 10 and often later discussed ; but the addition was not
made possible until 1938. n Church windows were re-
touched during Dr. MacKinnon's rectorate, with financial
aid from the women's groups. 12 Many improvements in
the church yard were made under the direction of Mrs.
J. Vernon Blades. 13
Just as the Christ Church bell was first to ring in the
news of the signing of the World War Armistice
November 11, 1918, with Dr. MacKinnon holding a
thanksgiving and prayer service, so the parish house was
the first public door opened to the hungry and suffering
fire victims after the disastrous fire on December 1, 1922,
which burned forty blocks, chiefly in Negro residential
sections, causing approximately $1,000,000 damage and
leaving 1,000 persons homeless.
St. Cyprian's Church also did valiant work during the
disaster, as did its rector, the Rev. R. I. Johnson. It was
temporarily converted into a Negro emergency hospital.
A baby born there was named St. Cyprian Emergency
Dillahunt. The dire need for a local Negro hospital then
became so urgent that efforts in that direction were
undertaken, resulting successfully fifteen years after-
Patriotism was stressed during Dr. MacKinnon's
ministry. He had started his work here during the World
War, and the American Flag was given an important
202 CROWN OF LIFE
place in the church. He also emphasized form and ritual ;
and his scholarly sermons gave much information about
church history, symbolism, the Trinity, Holy Communion
and other phases of worship.
Mission work was pushed through this region under his
guidance. The Rev. J. Mitchell Taylor was engaged as
his assistant along this line. Mr. Taylor carried on the
work particularly at the Vanceboro church, then a mission
of the parish.
In recent years missions have been sponsored at
Vanceboro, Trenton, Oriental, Pollocksville and Jasper.
None is being conducted at present. The Vanceboro
church now has its own rector and organization. The
Trenton church is operated under the Kinston parish, and
the Pollocksville membership has been transferred there.
The Oriental church was burned. The Jasper mission,
where the interest had decreased, was sold a few years
ago to the Disciples of Christ, who have moved the church
across the highway and renovated and beautified it as a
Sunday School building.
During April, 1925, after more than seven years here,
Dr. MacKinnon resigned. The vestry accepted his request
with regret, calling attention to the "high-tone, dignified
manner in which the services have been conducted and
the untiring efforts of Dr. MacKinnon to increase the
spiritual welfare of his people." 15
From New Bern he left June 3 for Pleasantville, N. J.,
near Atlantic City, where he had been elected rector of
St. Mark's parish. For some years he and Mrs. Mac-
Kinnon had been spending the Summers in that vicinity,
so had numerous friends there. After fruitful service, he
retired from the active ministry, and he and his wife
resided at Marshfield Hills, N. J. Mrs. MacKinnon died
in October, 1940.
i V. M., Vol. 4, pp. 209, 210, 214, 216.
2 ibid., 217.
3 Ibid., 223; Vol. 5, p. 46.
iIMd., March 3, 1919, Vol. 4, p. 234.
5 Ibid., 234-35, 237.
a Ibid., Vol. 5, pp. 7, 12-13.
THE REV. DANIEL G. M'KINNON 203
7 Ibid., 10-11.
8 Ibid., 9.
9 Ibid., 27.
ii Infra, p. 210.
12 V. M., Vol. 5, pp. 53, 55, 98.
is ibid., 52.
14 Infra, p. 214.
15 V. M., Vol. 5, pp. 58-59.
THE REV. GUY H. MADARA
The Rev. Guy H. Madara, who had acted temporarily
as rector here during the Autumn of 1917, following
missionary work in Alaska, returned to New Bern on
February 2, 1926, to begin a regular pastorate. 1
For two months before his arrival the Rev. Richard B.
Doherty, an able young minister from New York, had
substituted here. The parish had been without a regular
rector since Dr. MacKinnon had departed the preceding
Since 1918 the Rev. Mr. Madara had served as canon
missioner for the Diocese of Newark in New Jersey.
During the year before his local call he had also had
charge of the parish at Mountain Lakes, N. J. He was a
graduate of the Philadelphia Divinity School.
Isaac E. Brooks, of this city, was certified by the vestry
in 1927 as a worthy candidate for Holy Orders. 2 In time
he was duly ordained, and for some time held a rectorate
The next year the Rev. Jean A. Vache, pastor of a
Presbyterian chapel in Ghent, transferred his affiliation to
the Episcopal church, and was recommended by the vestry
for ordination. 3 Following service in East Carolina, he
has for some years been rector of St. Andrew's Church
As an important innovation, an acoustic system was
installed in the church, without expense to the parish.
When it was first planned to enlarge the city postoffice,
then on Pollock and Craven Streets, the Federal Govern-
ment in 1927 asked to buy the adjoining rectory lot on
Craven Street. The vestrymen agreed to sell it for
$20,000, and in 1929 the sale was consummated at that
price. Church notes were thereupon paid off, and the
balance was deposited on savings accounts in local banks,
which closed the next year. 4
THE REV. GUY H. MADARA 205
The Government afterwards decided not to enlarge its
old building but to sell it to the city for a City Hall and
to erect a new Federal Building on Middle and New
Streets. Accordingly, instead of building a new rectory
as long contemplated, the veslry bought the adjoining
Clark lot on Craven Street and moved the old rectory
there, completely renovating it both inside and out in
During the year 1929 the vestry and parish voted to
reduce the number of vestrymen from twelve back to nine
again; and the rotation system was inaugurated, with
three new members elected each year, to serve for only
three years. 5 In March, 1933, this rule was amended so
that no member except the Senior Warden could be re-
elected for at least one year after the expiration of a
Beloved for his indefatigable work among the poorer
citizens of the entire town and surrounding sections, Mr.
Madara especially fostered the activities at the church
missions. In this he was supported by the vestrymen.
A general church canvass was also sponsored here during
Much interest was taken in the women's work, and the
rector was instrumental in starting the long-active
Woman's Auxiliary on a new plan of circle or chapter
divisions that since then has been successfully followed.
Throughout the entire history of the church the women
have always been active and helpful, and their organi-
zations have accomplished many worthwhile things for
Not confining his interests to church but taking
prominent roles in civic and community affairs, Mr.
Madara was a leader in the Rotary Club, and served
capably as its president.
On All Saints Day in 1930 a unique new altar cloth was
dedicated for use in the church. 7 This had been completed
after seven months' work by Miss Elizabeth Griffin, who
left New Bern the next March for Manila and has since
served as treasurer of the Missionary District of the
206 CROWN OF LIFE
This lovely cloth still ranks as one of only three of the
kind in the country, the other two being at the Denver
Cathedral and the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in
New York City. Measuring 120 inches in length and 24
inches in width, it consists of tiny pieces of beautiful
laces contributed by 72 donors. The laces came from
many different parts of the world, most of them being
given as memorials to departed relatives or friends.
The corporal cloth and chalice veil were made later by
Mrs. D. L. Ward, Sr., and the credence cloth was made by
Mrs. H. C. Lumsden, to go with the altar or fair cloth.
These last three were dedicated on All Saints Day in 1932
in memory of Mrs. Katharine Brayshaw, wife of the next
rector. Probably no church in the nation has more
valuable and exquisite communion sets.
Mr. Madara resigned as the local rector in November,
1930, to take effect December 31. 8 A letter of regret was
written him by the vestry. 9
From headquarters at Rochester, N. Y., he did mis-
sionary work for the Church Extension Board. Then he
assumed charge of a parish at Hammondsport, N. Y. For
some time recently he has been a Chaplain in the Army,
again having his home and headquarters in Rochester.
During the Fall of 1940 he was promoted to the rank of
Major. Although unable to return here often from New
York State, he has kept in close touch with his many
i V. M., Vol. 5, p. 72. New Bern Sun-Journal files, for the first
part of February, 1926.
2 V. M., Vol. 5, pp. 100, 139.
3 Ibid., 132.
Ubid., 124, 127, 129, 149-50.
5 Ibid., 159.
sibid., March, 1933, p. 208; also repeated May, 1934, Vol. 5, p. 217.
7 Ibid., pp. 182-83.
8 Ibid., 181.
9 Ibid., 186.
THE REV. I. del. BRAYSHAW
A call to the Rev. Ilbert deLacy Brayshaw, assistant
rector of St. James Church, Wilmington, was extended
by Christ Church vestry. It was accepted, and Mr. Bray-
shaw began his local work September 1, 1931. 1
All Saints Chapel was closed that November. 2 Some of
its furnishings were given to missions. In 1938 the vestry
agreed to permit its use as a nursery school, at the request
of Mrs. Frank W. Hughes, the prime mover in this com-
munity project for the welfare of under-privileged
children in the Long Wharf section of town. The chapel
was then deconsecrated.
Through the financial aid and under the direction of
Senior Warden Bishop and with the advice of Mrs. Richard
N. Duffy and others as to decorations, the parish house
was renovated in 1933. The vestry expressed thanks to
Mr. Bishop and Mrs. Duffy. 3 The next year plans were
revived for a church school addition, but it was not until
1938 that this was finally achieved. 4
On May 17-18, 1933, the Golden Jubilee anniversary of
the organization of the Diocese of East Carolina here was
celebrated at Christ Church. Mr. Brayshaw was general
chairman for the programs, and there was a large atten-
dance of clergy and lay visitors from all parts of the
Near the previous marker in commemoration of the
founding of the earlier Diocese of North Carolina here, a
tablet was unveiled to mark the first convention for the
organization of the Diocese of East Carolina here Decem-
ber 12 and 13, 1883. This had been bought with contri-
butions raised under the direction of the Rev. Mr. Huske,
then of Kinston, as chairman of a special committee for
The inscription on this tablet reads : "To the glory of
God, in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the
organization of the Diocese of East Carolina, with
208 CROWN OF LIFE
reverent gratitude for abundant blessings and divine
mercies bestowed upon this diocese through fifty years of
progress. This tablet is erected at the fiftieth annual
convention of the diocese, May 17, 1933."
Women delegates were received and seated at this
convention for the first time in the history of the diocese.
Under former canons, only male members were eligible
for election as official delegates. The previous year the
conventions for men and women had been separated, and
this was the first year that the two had been held at
Bishop Darst read a proposed amendment to the canons,
whereby women would be permitted to serve as official
delegates to the General Convention. The proposal that
women be privileged to serve on vestries was also dis-
cussed, but final action was deferred. 5 It was approved
the following year by the General Convention, and made
effective by diocesan acceptance.
Dr. R. B. Drane, retired rector of St. Paul's historic
parish of Edenton, who for many years had served as
president of the diocesan conventions, at first declined
the honor at this 1933 gathering here, due to his physical
condition, but he was prevailed upon to accept his
unanimous election to the position. 6
Dr. Drane was one of the three convention honor guests
who had attended the organization gathering fifty years
before, the other two being Judge Francis D. Winston, of
Windsor, and N. W. Taylor, of Beaufort. The other three
survivors were unable to be here : the Rev. N. C. Hughes,
of Henderson; the Rev. Armand de Rossett, retired, of
Baltimore ; and the Rev. H. S. McDuffie, Negro clergyman,
then retired, of Philadelphia. 7
The hurricane of September, 1933, did considerable
damage to the church property and trees. The buildings
were quickly repaired, but the trees and shrubs were not
so easily replaced. Church members and officers did
much relief work for hurricane disaster sufferers of the
Mrs. Brayshaw, wife of the rector, died in New Bern
during his service here. He suffered a stroke of paralysis
The Rev. Charles E. Williams
The Rt. Rev. Thomas C. Darst
THE REV. I. D'L. BRAYSHAW 209
some time afterwards while at Washington, N. C, on
January 8, 1934. 8 For several months he was treated at
St. Luke's hospital here and at a hospital near Washing-
ton, D. C. He died June 29 at the home of a brother,
the Rev. William Brayshaw, in Smithfield, Va., at the age
of 42. 9
A native of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, he had held
rectorates in West Virginia and South Carolina, including
Orangeburg and Camden, before going to Wilmington and
thence coming to New Bern. He also served as a Chaplain
in the National Guard, and went on his regiment's en-
campments while he was here. As a preacher he was
forceful and eloquent, and as a pastor he was greatly
beloved. His untimely demise was sincerely regretted
by many friends and acquaintances.
i V. M., Vol. 5, pp. 190-91. New Bern Sun-Journal files for the
first part of September, 1931.
2 V. M., Vol. 5, p. 193.
3 Ibid., 211.
4 Ibid., 219. Supra, p. 201. Infra, 210.
5 New Bern Sun-Journal, May 17, 1933.
8 V. M., Vol. 5, p. 214.
9 New Bern Sun-Journal, June 29, 1934.
THE REV. CHARLES E. WILLIAMS
Through Bishop Darst, the vestry engaged the Rev.
Charles E. Williams, who was doing notable work in the
Creswell area, to act as supply rector for the Lenten and
Easter season of 1934 during the incapacity of Mr.
Mr. Williams was already well known here, having
spoken previously in the local church. He was one of the
main speakers on the first night's program during the
Jubilee convention here the previous year, his subject
being rural work.
When Mr. Brayshaw continued ill after Easter, Mr.
Williams kept on serving here as acting rector. Following
the former's death, Mr. Williams resigned as supply
rector early in July. However, on July 10 he was elected
the regular rector of the parish. 2
It was under his supervision that the parish house
addition was again recommended 3 and at last accom-
plished, being started in November, 1937, and made ready
for use by the next March. This two-story extension has
a rector's office, a church school office and three church
school classrooms on the lower floor and seven classrooms
on the second floor, a total of twelve rooms.
At the parish supper in 1935 it was announced that
women for the first time were eligible for election to the
vestry; but the parishioners decisively defeated a motion
to extend this plan to Christ Church women. 4 It was put
into vogue elsewhere in this and other dioceses.
The parish suppers were made unusually enjoyable by
Mr. Williams, with annual reports of church organization
officials, talks by Bishop Darst and the Rev. Walter R.
Noe, of Wilmington, executive secretary of the diocese,
and fellowship features.
A parish bulletin was authorized in December, 1936, 5
and proved so helpful and successful that it has since
then been published weekly by the rector, except during
THE REV. CHARLES E. WILLIAMS 21 1
the Summer months from the second Sunday in June to
the second Sunday in September.
Among the physical improvements of church property
during the past few years, Mr. Bishop at his own expense
had the church interior and outside porch repainted in
St. Ann's Chapter of the Woman's Auxiliary had the
grave of the first rector, the Rev. James Reed, rebricked
in 1937. A long flat marble slab was placed there, with an
appropriate inscription. 7 Much other work was done in
the church yard. Historical markers had already been
erected there by the city and the New Bern Historical
In commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the
death of John Wright Stanly, buried in the church yard
in 1789, a memorial service was held at the grave in 1939
by the Young People's Service League.
One of the most important accomplishments during
Mr. Williams' active and fruitful ministry was the build-
ing of a sacristy, as an addition to the northeastern
portion of the church. This was done by St. Agnes
Chapter, another of the seven chapters of the Auxiliary.
It was dedicated to the use of the Altar Guild, in memory
of Mr. Brayshaw, (1891-1934). Many of the furnishings
of the beautiful little room are memorials to other
During the early part of May, 1940, Mr. Williams began
holding noon prayer services in the church every week
day to pray for world peace and improved world con-
ditions. Members of other denominations joined Episco-
palians in these services for three months. The American
flag was kept constantly in the chancel.
As of July 22, 1940, there were 607 baptized members
listed on the church rolls, with 489 confirmed communi-
The church school had 168 members enrolled for the
year of 1939-40, with 19 teachers and officers, Mr.
Williams acting as general superintendent. Under the
direction of Mrs. Leinster Duffy, a splendid Junior choir
furnished Lenten music as usual.
212 CROWN OF LIFE
During the past ten years the Young People's Service
League did excellent work, winning a banner as a standard
league for seven years of that decade (1933-1939), and
one year being awarded the diocesan shield for making
the best record in the diocese.
A living Christmas tree sponsored by this organization
was planted at the southwestern corner of the church
yard, in memory of Miss Mollie Heath, for over half a
century a local public school teacher and church school
Memorials in the church and church yard have been
compiled and listed by Miss Margaret S. Bryan. The
attractive scrapbook is exhibited for the many visitors
who come to the church during the annual Garden Club
All organizations of the church functioned successfully
during the 1939-40 year, report church officials. The
Woman's Auxiliary as always had a busy year, as did its
various chapters. The women have always worked
loyally and efficiently for their church, and have had
various successful organizations as the present Altar
Guild ; the former St. Cecilia society, which staged so
many successful Christmas bazaars; and other sewing
societies, missionary groups and church auxiliaries.
Since the War Between the States there have been only
four Senior Wardens: Jacob Gooding, John Hughes,
George H. Roberts and Mr. Bishop.
It is impossible to check exactly the number of years
that Mr. Gooding served on the vestry, but it was proba-
bly half a century, including the church activity recess
during the War Between the States. He was on the vestry
in 1830 when the first vestry minutes now extant begin.
How long he had then been a member is not known. In
1824 he was not a vestryman. He served until his death
at the age of almost 90 in 1877. Nor is it known exactly
how long he was Senior Warden, as the first reference
to this in the minutes was in 1852. Family connections
have been told that he served for 40 years as Senior
THE REV. CHARLES E. WILLIAMS 213
Major Hughes served on the vestry for 23 years, includ-
ing 12 years as Senior Warden. George H. Roberts, for
33 years Senior Warden, served 48 years on the vestry.
Mr. Bishop's long service on the vestry began in 1889,
and his Senior Wardenship started in 1922.
An unusually long vestry record was also made by
Judge Henry R. Bryan, who served 53 years, from 1866
to his death in 1919, including a number of years as
Junior Warden. J. G. Dunn, Sr., also long a Junior
Warden in recent years, served 33 years on the vestry
Of outstanding importance and interest to Christ
Church members is the Permanent Endowment Fund.
This was first started June 7, 1886, when George B. Guion
bequeathed $500, for use in maintaining the church yard ;
but the money was so badly needed for current expenses
during the next decade that it was borrowed by the
vestry, with the intention of replacing it shortly.
Not until March 5, 1929, was this sum returned to the
fund, which by then had been re-established with other
legacies. It was repaid into the endowment from interest
that had accumulated on the fund.
Mr. Bishop was appointed trustee for the fund, and in
1940 had the distinction of having preserved the entire
principal intact, despite the industrial depression and
bank failures. At Mr. Bishop's request, John G. Dunn,
Jr., has been a co-trustee since 1935.
From the vestry minutes, especially those for the early
part of 1929, during Mr. Madara's rectorate, may be found
references to the endowment fund. Only the interest is
used, for upkeep of the church yard, permanent improve-
ments on the church and other such expenditures
considered of permanent value to the church or its
A total of $14,100 was shown for the principal, invested
in good securities, according to the trustees' books as of
September 2, 1940. The list of donors, with the amount
of their bequests and the date received, follows :
George B. Guion, $500, 1886-1929; Charles Tilden
Pumphrey, a choir member confirmed in the church just
214 CROWN OF LIFE
before leaving here on World War service, dying of
pneumonia while on Y.M.C.A. duty in France, $100, 1919 ;
Mrs. Kate La Montaigne, $500, 1919 ; George H. Roberts,
$1,000, 1927; Mrs. Mary O. Windley, $500, 1927; Mrs.
Sarah E. Wadsworth, $1,000, 1928; James A. Bryan,
$5,000, 1929 ; Mrs. Margaret D. Nelson, $2,000, 1929 ; Mrs.
Louise B. Addis, $3,000, 1934 ; and Mrs. Sophia B. Duffy,
Much of Mr. Williams' time, as well as that of Bishop
Darst, Mr. Noe, Mr. Bishop and other church members,
has been given to the Good Shepherd Hospital for
Negroes, 8 opened June 26, 1938, as the only such institu-
tion for Negro patients in an eighty-mile radius. It was
sponsored by the Diocese, and was located on property
that had been left the Diocese by the Rev. Mr. Forbes.
Its second anniversary was observed here, with appro-
priate program, on Sunday, June 30, 1940. At that time
it was announced that there was no outstanding indebted-
ness on the $70,000 building and equipment. The Duke
Endowment, the Pennsylvania Diocese and others were
among the donors. Women's Auxiliaries of East Carolina
and Massachusetts gave the hospital quantities of linens
and supplies during the Spring.
Mr. Noe is chairman and treasurer of the board of
directors; the Rev. R. I. Johnson, general manager and
chief organizer. For the two years they reported 392
operations, 320 medical cases, 75 babies born, 342 persons
in the out-patient department, and as many as 500 persons
a month at the regular clinics conducted there by county
As rector of St. Cyprian's Church since 1918, the Rev.
R. I. Johnson has been outstanding, not only in this
diocese but in other parts of the country. Although much
work among Negroes was done here by white rectors, with
a Negro congregation organized temporarily as early as
1833, 9 the permanent organization of St. Cyprian's Church
dates back only to June 20, 1866. For a time it was
served by white leaders, as Mr. Skinner and Mr. Forbes.
The Rev. Peter W. Cassey, a perpetual deacon, who
came here in 1880 and served until 1894, was the first
THE REV. CHARLES E. WILLIAMS 215
colored man to have charge of the church, and since then
all rectors have been Negroes. The next year he was
followed by the Rev. George Frazier Miller, of Brooklyn,
N. Y., who remained one year. The Rev. George Avant
was rector from 1898 to 1907. During the rectorate of
the Rev. J. L. Taylor, 1907-13, the present church was
built to replace the former century-old structure. For
one year, 1915-16, the Rev. S. A. Morgan served there,
being succeeded by the incumbent, whose ministry has
been the longest of all.
i V. M., Vol. 5, p. 214.
2 Ibid., pp. 221-22.
3 Ibid., 219, 270, et passim. Supra, 201, 207.
4 V. M., Vol. 5, p. 243.
5 Ibid., 258.
6 Ibid., 285.
7 Supra, p. 96.
8 Supra, p. 201. See also V. M., June 16, 1930, Vol. 5, p. 172.
9 Supra, pp. 127, 142.
THE RT. REV. THOMAS C. DARST
The Right Reverend Thomas Campbell Darst, D. D.,
third Bishop of the Diocese of East Carolina since 1915,
deserves a large share of the credit for the progress and
promise of the parish and the Diocese during the last
quarter of a century. His encouragement and inspiration
have assisted the local rectors in all their undertakings
Born at Pulaski, Va., November 10, 1875, a son of
Thomas Welsh Darst and Margaret Glendy Darst, he was
reared in the Presbyterian faith, like Bishops Ravenscroft,
Ives and Watson. When he told his mother he had decided
to become an Episcopal minister, she said, "I bequeath
thee to His Divine Will."
In 1899 he was graduated from Roanoke College, Salem,
Va., and three years later from the Virginia Theological
Seminary. Since then he has been awarded the degree of
Doctor of Divinity by Roanoke College, the Virginia
Seminary, the University of the South, Duke University
and the University of North Carolina.
Ordained to the diaconate by Bishop Peterkin, of West
Virginia, in 1902, he was ordained to the priesthood the
next year by Bishop Gravatt. He served as assistant
rector of Christ Church, Fairmont, W. Va., 1902-03 ; then
became rector of Meade and John's parishes in Upperville,
Va., where he stayed until 1905; when he became rector
of St. Mark's Church, Richmond, for four years. From
1909 to 1914 he was rector of St. Paul's, Newport News,
Va. ; then went to St. James, Richmond.
Unanimously elected Bishop of the Diocese of East
Carolina at St. Peter's Church in Washington, he was
consecrated January 6, 1915, at St. James Church,
Wilmington, by Bishops Tuttle, Cheshire, Horner, Guerry,
Gravatt and B. D. Tucker. The 25th anniversary of this
occasion was appropriately celebrated last January during
the 57th annual meeting of the Diocesan convention and
THE RT. REV. THOMAS C. DARST 217
the 52nd annual gathering of the Diocesan Woman's
Auxiliary at St. James.
Not only among Episcopalians but also among all de-
nominations Bishop Darst is known and beloved. With
his Bishop's Fund he has aided many persons. At the
annual encampments at Camp Leach, he is loved as one
of the best sports among all the young people at the
During his 25 years in the Diocese he has confirmed
about 9,000 persons ; sixty young men have been ordained
ministers; and thirteen persons have gone into foreign
Among those serving as a missionary in a foreign land
from this Diocese is a native New Bernian, Dr. Lula
Disosway, daughter of Mrs. Lula Disosway and the late
R. J. Disosway. In 1927 she went to China as a medical
missionary, and has made a high mark for herself as
assistant to the superintendent of St. Elizabeth's Epis-
copal Hospital at Shanghai, where she has charge of the
maternity division. Through shot and shell, war and
revolution, she has remained faithfully on her job. Her
talks about her work during her visits home are heard
with much interest.
Originator and director of the famous Bishops' Crusade
a number of years ago, Bishop Darst became known all
over the country. He has preached in many of the
leading churches and cities of America.
Besides serving as the first Chairman of the National
Commission on Evangelism, he has been president of the
Synod of the Province of Sewanee; and trustee of the
University of the South, St. Mary's and St. Augustine's
schools at Raleigh, and the Bishop Payne Divinity School
at Petersburg, Va.
Included in the Diocese of East Carolina, one of the
three now in North Carolina, are most of the counties in
the eastern part of the State along the entire coastline.
There were about 8,000 communicants and almost 100
parishes and missions reported in 1940.
Cooperating in extensive plans that contemplate the
eventual restoration of historic St. Thomas Church,
218 CROWN OF LIFE
"Cathedral of the Diocese," and other old buildings at
Bath, oldest town in North Carolina, Bishop Darst has
exemplified his regard and appreciation for the past
record of the church, in building on historical heritage
for a more worthy present and a greater future, with
praise and gratitude for the work, service and inspiration
of older leaders in pointing the way towards higher goals.
CHRIST CHURCH VESTRYMEN
In Chronological Order
From 1830 to Present Date, 1940
John R. Donnell
John P. Daves
John H. Bryan
Moses Jarvis (Treasurer, Junior Warden)
Jacob Gooding (Treasurer, Senior Warden)
William Kyle (Secretary)
Edward G. Pasteur
John M. Roberts
James W. Bryan (Secretary)
Charles Shepard (Secretary)
John W. Guion (Secretary)
Stephen B. Forbes
Moses W. Jarvis (Secretary, Treasurer, Junior
Thomas S. Singleton
William Dunn (Secretary, Treasurer)
John R. Justice
John N. Washington
J. C. Justice
John A. Guion
M. A. Outten
William G. Hall (Treasurer)
John S. Winthrop
William H. Oliver (Secretary, Treasurer, Junior
Joseph Fulford (Treasurer)
John Hughes (Senior Warden)
220 CROWN OF LIFE
Henry R. Bryan (Junior Warden)
Frederick C. Roberts (Secretary)
Daniel T. Carraway (Secretary, Treasurer)
George H. Roberts (Treasurer, Junior Warden, Senior
W. B. Boyd (Secretary)
M. D. W. Stevenson
John Dunn (Treasurer, Junior Warden)
John S. Long
Owen H. Guion (Secretary)
E. K. Bishop (Secretary, Junior Warden, Senior
J. B. Hughes
Graham Daves (Secretary)
John R. B. Carraway (Treasurer)
Edward B. Roberts
William Dunn, Sr. (Secretary)
Wentworth S. Simmons (Secretary)
Frank W. Hughes
Charles L. Stevens
J. G. Dunn (Treasurer, Junior Warden)
Thomas D. Warren
W. G. Boyd (Secretary)
H. B. Smith
William Dunn, Jr.
W. B. R. Guion
H. M. Bonner
R. J. Disosway
Charles A. Seifert
William W. Griffin (Treasurer)
Mark Disosway (Honorary Vestryman for Life)
H. J. Lovick
W. J. Rice
Charles H. Stith (Junior Warden)
C. R. Thomas
George H. Roberts, Jr. (Secretary)
J. E. Boswell (Secretary, Treasurer)
E. R. Marriner
CHRIST CHURCH VESTRYMEN 221
J. C. Bagg (Secretary)
E. A. Braddy
J. G. Dunn, Jr. (Treasurer)
Henry P. Whitehurst
Frank N. Challen
Oscar A. Kafer, Sr.
Laurence A. Stith (Secretary)
L. M. Satterthwaite
John Haywood Jones (Secretary)
Frank F. Fagan (Junior Warden)
John A. Guion
Parker W. Morris
G. N. Mitchell
E. K. Bishop, Senior Warden
F. F. Fagan, Junior Warden
J. G. Dunn, Jr., Treasurer
John Haywood Jones, Clerk
J. E. Boswell
Parker W. Morris
G. N. Mitchell
Charles H. Stith
George H. Roberts, Jr.
COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY VESTRY TO ARRANGE FOR
WRITING AND PUBLISHING OF CHURCH HISTORY
E. K. Bishop
John A. Guion
Judge R. A. Nunn
Anderson, James S. M. The History of the Church of England in
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224 CROWN OF LIFE
Cheshire, Joseph Blount. Fragments of Colonial Church History.
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Drane, Robert B. "Colonial Parishes and Church Schools." Pub-
lished in Cheshire's Sketches.
Drane, Rebecca Wood. "Bishop Watson's Decision to Join the
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early Colonial days.
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R. Carter, 1846.
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226 CROWN OF LIFE
Irwin, Michael A. History of St. Paul's Catholic Church, New
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Masonic Minutes. Records of St. John's Lodge, A. F. & A. M.
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Moore, Hight C. "A Century of Service," typewritten copy of an
address delivered in New Bern during the 125th anniversary
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Moore, John W. School History of North Carolina. New York,
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Protestant Episcopal Historical Society Collections.
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New Bern, Owen G. Dunn, 1911.
Roberts, Lavinia Cole. Collection of original manuscripts on local
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Shotwell, R. A. Business Directory of New Bern, 1866.
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228 CROWN OF LIFE
Ware, Charles Crossfield. "History of Disciples of Christ in New
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pages typewritten manuscript, University of North Carolina
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Carolina. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, May-June, 1892.
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The Press of North Carolina in the Eighteenth Century.
Brooklyn, N. Y., Historical Printing Club, 1891.
Historical Papers. U. N. C. library, Chapel Hill.
Collection of Caroliniana. Raleigh, E. M. Uzzell and
and Weeks, Sadie Mangum. Scrapbook. 10 v. History
and biography of North Carolina, newspaper clippings, 1825-
1897. U. N. C. library.
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delphia, Lippincott, Grambo and Co., 1851.
White, John. Account of Lost Colony. Published by Richard
Hakluyt, England, 1600.
White Pine Monograph. An Architectural Monograph. "New Bern
Architecture." Series of 3 articles. By Charles Francis Hanni-
gan and Aymar Embury, II. Vol. XIII, Nos. 1-3. Russell F.
Whitehead, Editor. New York, The Marchbanks Press, 1927.
Whitford, John D. Historical Notes. Typewritten manuscript of
notes on the history of the First Baptist Church and New Bern.
Copies at New Bern Public Library and North Carolina His-
torical Commission Library, Raleigh.
Historical Collection. Manuscripts and clippings on
historical subjects. North Carolina Historical Commission Li-
Williamson, Hugh. History of North Carolina. 2 v. Philadel-
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Winston, Francis D. "Forming of East Carolina Diocese." New
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NEWSPAPER FILES. North Carolina Gazette and North Caro-
lina Magazine, or Universal Intelligencer, all extant issues, 1751-
1785. Photostat copies in the North Carolina Historical Commission
Archives, Raleigh. Other early North Carolina newspapers at His-
torical Commisison library and University of North Carolina library.
Old copies of New Bern Spectator. Files covering past 20 years for
Raleigh News and Observer, Greensboro Daily News, Charlotte
Observer, Winston-Salem Journal, and New Bern Sun-Journal.
PERIODICAL FILES. North Carolina Booklet, published during
first years of the 20th century by the North Carolina Daughters of
the Revolution. The Mission Herald, The Southern Churchman,
The Spirit of Missions and other Episcopal publications. D. A. R.
Magazine, now the National Historical Magazine, published monthly
by the National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution,
North Carolina Historical Review, published by the State Histori-
cal Commission. The South Atlantic Quarterly, published by the
Duke University Press, Durham. Biblical Recorder, published at
Raleigh for the North Carolina Baptists, files for 1934. North Caro-
lina Christian, Wilson, published by North Carolina Disciples of
Christ, files 1930-40. North Carolina Christian Advocate, North
Carolina Methodists, 1936.
LIBRARIES. New Bern Public Library. Archives of St. John's
Lodge, No. 3, A. F. & A. M. Private libraries, especially of church
books. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Woman's Col-
lege, U. N. C, Greensboro. Duke University Library, Durham.
North Carolina Historical Commission Library, Raleigh. State
Library Commission, Raleigh. Executive office library of the Dio-
cese of East Carolina, including journals of all the diocesan conven-
tions, Wilmington. Christ Church records — parish registers, vestry
minutes, and organization books. New York Public Library, New
York City. New York Historical Society Library, New York City.
Columbia University Library, New York City. Congressional
MISCELLANEOUS. Encyclopedias. General histories. General
collections and clippings on New Bern and East Carolina. Genealo-
gies. Birth, baptism, marriage and death records. Tombstone
ABBREVIATIONS OF TITLES
Col. Rec. The Colonial Records of North Carolina.
St. Rec . The State Records of North Carolina.
V. M. Vestry Minutes of Christ Church, New Bern.
P. R. Parish Registers, Christ Church.
D. J. Diocesan Journals, proceedings of diocesan
conventions in Dioceses of North Carolina
and East Carolina.
Ackroyd, James B., 138
Acoustic System, 204
"Acres of Diamonds," 169
Adams, James, 16, 17
Addis, Louise B., 214
African Episcopal, 173
Alabama, 130, 172
Albemarle Section, 16, 41, 110
All Saints Chapel, 189, 198
Altar Cloths, 205-6
Altar Guild, old organization, 183;
present organization, 211, 212
Ambrose, Phil, 68
American Foreign Missionary
Americus, Ga., 192
Amory, T. J. C, 169
Anabaptists, 30, 54, 80
Andrew Chapel, 129-30
Andrews, A. B., 81, 117, 223
Apostolic Succession, 137, 170
Archdale, John, 12
Archdale Precinct, 16
Architecture, present church,
Armistice, World War, 201
Army, 206; see also Confederate
Army and Union Soldiers
Asbury, Bishop, 129
Ashe, John, 77
Ashe, Samuel A., 22, 223
Asheville, 184, 198
Asheville Missionary District, 198
Assembly Acts, 14, 23, 24, 25-27,
29, 34-35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 47, 48,
50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58-60, 62,
66, 73, 82, 86, 89, 98, 99, 100;
incorporation of New Bern
school, 70; erection of govern-
ment house, 74; see also General
Atkinson, James C, 184
Atkinson, Thomas A., 140, 158,
162, 163-65, 169, 173, 179, 182,
184, 186, 187, 193
Atlantic and North Carolina Rail-
Atlantic City, 202
Attmore, George S., 159
Attmore, William, 100, 223
Avant, George, 215
Avery, John, 119, 124
Badger, George E., 117, 159
Bagg, J. C, 201, 220
Baltimore, 154, 163, 208
Baptisms, 21, 27, 29, 30, 40-41, 54,
63, 73, 76, 80, 83, 87, 125, 126,
137, 138, 151, 167, 170, 173,
Baptist, 22, 32, 129, 131-35, 138,
139, 169, 175, 181
Baptist Sunday School Board, 135
Barnett, John, 73
Baskett, John, 45
Bass, Alexander, 179
Bath, 13, 16, 36, 37, 40, 47, 58, 64,
69, 73, 79, 83, 217-18
Bath County, 16
Battle, Kemp P., 13
Battle of New Bern, 167-68
Baxter's Jewelry Store, 177
Bayard vs. Singleton, 100
Bayley, Amb. Cox, 68
Beaufort, 27, 175, 181, 208
Beaufort County, 69, 120
Beaufort Precinct, 16, 25
Bell, on church, 141, 177, 179, 201
Bell, Joseph, 25, 27
Benners, Edward, 219
Benners, Lucas, 124, 125
Bentham, Joseph, 45
Bertie, 30, 73
Bethel Conference, 133
Bevis, Christopher, 41
Bible, 20, 32, 172
Bible, royal gift to parish, 45-46
Bible Class, 200
Biblical Recorder, 131
Bi-Centennial, founding of New
Bill of Rights, 93
Bishop, Edward K., 3, 141, 177,
188, 190, 197, 198, 200, 207, 211,
212, 213, 214, 220, 221
Bishop, George, 177
Bishop of Charleston, Catholic,
Bishop of London, 10, 13, 14, 20,
21, 29, 30, 44, 50, 59, 60, 66, 73,
76, 77, 84, 86, 89
Bishop Payne Divinity School, 217
Bishop's Crusade, 217
Bishop's Fund, 217
Blackwell, John, 159, 219
Blades, Mrs. J. Vernon, 201
Blair, John, 15
Blount, Jacob, 55, 64, 68, 77
Blount, James, 77
Blount, John B., 122
Blount, the Rev. Mr., 97, 102, 103
Blount, William, 98, 99
Blount's Chapel, 119
Board of Trade, 31, 35, 50, 52, 83
Bold, George, 38
Bonner, H. M., 220
Bonner, James, 77
Boone, Joseph, 15
Boston, 44, 168, 169, 180, 190
Boswell, J. E., 201, 220, 221
Boundary, between North Caro-
lina and Virginia, 27
Boyd, Adam, 119
Boyd, John, 30
Boyd, W. B., 220
Boyd, W. G., 201, 220
Boyd, William K., 28
Braddy, E. A., 221
Brady, C. O., 179
Bragg, Mr., 133
Bray, Thomas, 10, 12, 13
Brayshaw, I. deL., 6, 206, 207-9,
Brayshaw, Katharine (Mrs. I.
deL.), 206, 208
Brayshaw, William, 209
Breaker, J. M. C, 132
Brett, Daniel, 12, 15
Brice, William, 25
Brick Manufacture, 37, 38
Brickell, John, 41, 223
Brinson, Samuel M., 33
British, 51, 89, 95, 97
Broad Street Christian Church,
Brooklyn, 158, 215
Brooks, George, 169
Brooks, Isaac E., 204
Brooks, John, 33
Brooks, Phillips, 169
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, 200
Brown, John H., 6, 191, 192, 195,
Brunswick, 41, 42, 52, 67, 69, 72,
Brunswick County, Va., 193
Bruton Parish, Williamsburg, Va.,
Bryan, Edward, 38, 39
Bryan, Henry R., 166, 173, 179,
188, 192, 200, 213, 220
Bryan, James A., 156, 190, 214
Bryan, James W., 141, 159, 166,
Bryan, John, 37, 38
Bryan, John Council, 44
Bryan, John H., 127, 219
Bryan, Margaret S., 212
Bryan, William, 99
Buffalo, N. Y., 183
Burgess, Thomas, 73
Burgwyn, J. F., 136, 138
Burial Plots, 155; see also Ceme-
tery, Cedar Grove Cemetery,
Christ Church Yard, Federal
Cemetery and Greenwood Ceme-
Burke, John, 6, 144-45
Burnside, A. E., 168
Burr, Aaron, 130
Burr, Agnes Rush, 171
Burrington, George, 29
Burton, Daniel, 79
Buxton, Jarvis B., 127
Bynum, J. N., 198
Byrd, William, 27-28
Calhoun, John C, 105
California, 164, 187
Calvary Church, New York, 154
Calvinists, 19, 21, 22
Cambridge University, 164
Camden, S. C, 209
Camp Leach, 217
Campbell, John, 77
Campbell, John Nicholson, 131
Campbell, Marsden, 121-22, 198
Cape Fear, 30, 42, 52, 65
Cape Henry, 9, 11
Capital, 33, 74-75, 112
Carlton, William, 32
Carolina Centinel, 134
Carolina Churchman, 195
Carraway, Daniel T., 178-79, 220
Carraway, John R. B., 192, 220
Carraway, Kate, 183
Carraway, Sarah Bennett (Mrs.
D. T.), 178
Carter, James, 48
Carteret Precinct, 27
Cassey, Peter W., 214-15
Caswell, Richard, 68, 77, 99, 100
Cathedral of Diocese, 218
Cathedral of St. John the Divine,
Catholic, 22, 29, 54, 92, 125, 132,
145, 152, 155
Catholic Orphanage, Raleigh, 132
Cedar Grove Cemetery, 86, 105-6,
113, 117, 142, 151, 154, 155, 156,
Cemeteries, 155-56; see also Burial
Plots, Christ Church Yard,
Cedar Grove Cemetery, Federal
Cemetery and Greenwood Ceme-
Centenary Methodist Church, 129
Centennial Anniversary, 198
Cesar, the Rev. Mr., 20
Chalice Veil, 206
Challen, Frank N., 221
Chancellor Kent, 170
Chapel Hill, 113, 131, 149
Chapel of the Cross, 131
Chaplain of Congress, 131
Charles I, 23
Charles II, 10
Charleston, S. C, 42, 132
Cheraw, S. C, 149
Cheshire, Joseph Blount, 11, 13,
17, 39, 42, 43, 49, 72, 75, 84, 88,
97, 101, 104, 107, 108, 111, 117,
118, 120, 123, 140, 186, 187, 198,
Chester B'nai Sholem Synagogue,
Chester, Stephen, 134
Chevin, N., 26
Choir, 138, 190, 213
Chowan, 12, 14, 16, 17, 25, 26, 36,
40, 69, 73
Chowan Institute, 132
Christ Church, Baltimore, 154
Christ Church, Elizabeth City, 172
Christ Church, Fairmont, W. Va.,
Christ Church, New Orleans, 153
Christ Church, Pensacola, 195
Christ Church, Raleigh, 120, 127,
Christ Church Parish, New Bern,
64, 67, 86, 98, 112, 124, 126, 149,
174, 181, 185, 186, 195, 197, 216;
designated as a parish, 34, 42;
first church built, 36-39, 44, 69,
100, 106, 115, 133, 134, 136;
second church, 100, 101, 129,
136-40; third church built and
consecrated, 177-82; wardens,
86, 101, 103, 136; yard, 96, 99,
113, 136, 155-56, 174, 201, 208,
211, 212, 213
Christian Science, 133
Christmas, 31, 83, 181, 192, 212
Christmas Tree, 212
Church Canvass, 205
Church Constitution, 97; Diocese,
121; State, 107, 109, 121-22, 168
Church of Annunciation, New
Church of England, 9, 10, 12, 14-
17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30,
33, 34, 35, 45-46, 54, 58-60, 65,
68, 70, 72, 74, 79, 82, 83, 87, 93,
95, 97, 163
Church of Good Shepherd, Raleigh,
Church of Holy Saviour, New
Church of Mediation, New York,
Church School, see Sunday School
City Hall, 188, 205
Claremont, New Hampshire, 184
Claremont, Esclairmond, 178
Clarke, Mary Bayard, 156
Clay, Henry, 172
Clay, Jehu Curtis, 6, 121-22, 198
Cleary, Timothy, 68
Cleery, Patrick, 155
Clements, William, 103, 106
Clergy Bills, 51-52, 56, 58-60, 66,
Clermont Plantation, 99, 114, 117
Clitherall, John, 68
Clubfoot Creek, 21
Coart, Sarah, 152
Cogdail, Charles, 27
Cogdell, Richard, 62, 64, 68
Cohen, Abraham David, 132
Collector, Port of New Bern, 152,
Collins, Josiah, 121, 170, 199
Collins, Mrs. Josiah, 170
Collins, William, 114
Colonial Dames, 42
Colonial Records of North Caro-
lina, see footnotes at end of
Colonial Society of Massachusetts,
Columbia, S. C, 132, 138, 142
Columbus, Ga., 152
Committee of Correspondence,
Committee of Safety, 90, 99
Communion, 30, 48, 50, 54, 63, 202
Communion Silver, 44, 187
Compton, Henry, 13
Confederate Army, 111, 166, 167,
Confederate Baptist, 132
Confederate Monument, 156
Connecticut, 127, 145, 153, 154,
Connor, Henry G., 94, 128
Connor, R. D. W., 78
Constitution, Federal, 93, 97, 98,
99, 197; State, 35, 92-93, 99;
State Church, see Church Con-
Constitutional Amendments, 93,
Constitutional Convention, State,
Continental Congress, 90, 99
Conventions, North Carolina Epis-
copal, first, 103; second, 103-4;
third, 106-7; others, 109, 121-23,
126, 127, 158; see also Diocesan
Conway, Peter, 68
Conwell, Russell H., 169
Cook, John, 130
Coon, Charles Lee, 118
Cornell, Samuel, 68, 77
Corporal Cloth, 206
Cosgreve, Thomas, 73
Cotting, Eliu, 68
Council, 33, 66, 92
Court, Pleas and Quarter Sessions,
Cox, Longfield, 68
Cox, Melvell B., 130
Cranmer, May Webb, 170
Craven County, 19-22, 39, 69, 73,
80, 95, 130, 214
Craven, Earl of, 14
Craven Parish, 25-27
Craven Precinct, 14, 26
Cray, William, 77
Credence Cloth, 206
Creecy, Richard B., 94
Creswell, 110, 210
Crosswell, Harry, 153
Cuppels, Charles, 73, 97
Currituck, 16, 25
Curtis, Moses A., 148
Custis, Peter, 156
Cutting, Leonidas, 6, 98-101, 105
Daly, John, 68
Dare, Virginia, 9
Darst, Margaret G., 216
Darst, T. W., 216
Darst, Thomas C, 189, 198, 210,
Daves, Graham, 45, 46, 189, 220
Daves, John, 101, 174
Daves, John P., 136, 138, 139, 174,
Daves, Mary M. (Mrs. John W.
Daves, Mrs., 159
Davidson College, 131
Davis, James, 33, 41, 49, 61, 64,
68, 73, 78, 100
Davis, Jefferson, 171
Davis, William, 77
Declaration of Independence, 130,
Dedication, of book, 4
deGraffenried, Christopher, 20, 21,
de Miranda, Don Francisco, 75
Denver, Cathedral, 206
de Richebourg, Claude Phillippe,
de Rossett, Armand, 208
deRosset, Lewis, 77
de Rosset, William L., 11
Diocese of East Carolina, 158, 166,
171, 187, 189, 193, 198, 207-8,
210, 214, 216, 217, 218; organi-
Diocese of Newark, 204
Diocese of North Carolina, 121-23,
126, 137, 138, 141, 158, 179, 186,
187, 193, 198, 207
Diocese of Pennsylvania, 214
Diocese of Western New York, 183
Diocesan Conventions, 121-22, 124,
126, 127, 137, 145, 158, 166, 173,
179, 186, 187, 198, 207, 216; see
Diocesan Records, 149, 151; see
also footnotes for various chap-
Diocesan Reports, from Christ
Church, 127, 142, 144, 147, 151-
52, 158, 159-60, 162, 166, 167,
168, 172, 173, 175, 178, 179, 183
Diocesan Shield, 212
Disciples of Christ, 133, 202
Disestablishment of Church, 89-93
Disosway, Israel, 219
Disosway, Lula, 217
Disosway, Mark, 190, 220
Disosway, Mrs. Lula, 217
Disosway, R. J., 217, 220
Dissenters, 19, 30, 32, 33, 82
Dobbs, Arthur, 47, 50-52, 54, 56,
58, 61, 62, 64, 65, 72, 73, 114
Dobbs County, 73
Doherty, Richard B., 204
Donnell, Anne, 179
Donnell, John R., 136, 138, 140,
Dow, Lorenzo, 129
Dramatics, 115, 117
Drane, R. B., 208
Drane, Rebecca Wood, 170
Draper, William, 114
Drew, Daniel, 120
Dry, William, 77
Dubbs, Joseph H., 22
Duffy, Francis S., 189
Duffy, Mrs. Leinster, 211
Duffy, Mrs. Richard N., 207
Duffy, Sophia B. (Mrs. Charles),
Duffy, Sam, 188
Duke Endowment, 214
Duke University, 216
Dukenfield, Nat, 77
Dunn, J. G., 200, 201, 213, 220
Dunn, J. G., Jr., 201, 213, 221
Dunn, John, 220
Dunn, Lucretia Guion (Mrs. John),
Dunn, William, 159, 219
Dunn, William, Sr., 197, 220
Dunn, William, Jr., 220
Dutch, 20, 21
Eagles, Alexander, 68
Earl, Daniel, 41, 69, 73, 90, 97, 110
Earl of Dartmouth, 89
East Carolina Sunday School Com-
Easter, 32, 65, 122, 170, 210
Easter Monday, 25, 34, 92, 101
Eddy, Mary Baker, 133
Eddy, the Rev. Mr., 175
Eden, Charles, 23, 26, 37
Edenton, 30, 36-37, 40, 41, 64, 69,
90, 102, 109, 110, 119, 122, 124,
126, 175, 199, 208
Edenton Academy, 110
Edes, Henry H., 81
Edmundson, William, 12, 13
Edwards, Jonathan, 130
Elizabeth City, 147, 172
Elliott, Charles, 155
Ellis, Areta, 151
Ellis, John W., 175
Ellis, Mrs. J. W., 175
Ellis, Richard, 68
Ellixon, Mr., 133
Elwin, Fountain, 67
Empie, Adam, 121, 122, 124, 198
Endowment Fund, 213
England, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17,
19, 20, 23, 40, 44-46, 51, 58, 59,
61, 62, 76, 80, 83, 86, 89, 96, 97,
119. 137, 152, 153
English, 22, 120
Episcopal Church, name chosen,
97; first organization efforts in
North Carolina, 97-98, 102-103;
first convention, 103; second
convention, 103-4; third, 106-7;
see also Conventions, Diocese of
North Carolina, Diocese of East
Carolina, Diocesan Conventions,
Established Church and Church
Established Church, 10, 14, 23, 24,
25, 29, 34-35, 42, 58-60, 72, 82,
84, 89, 93, 111
Euen, Will, 68
Eutaw Springs, 174
Evans, Richard, 77
Every Member Canvass, 198
Fagan, Frank F., 201, 221
Farrow, Mrs. G. A., 190
Fasting, 51, 90
Fayetteville, 44, 93, 104, 121, 122,
124, 127, 168, 170, 173, 197, 198,
Federal Cemetery, 156
Female Benevolent Society, see
New Bern Benevolent Society
Female Charitable Society, 145
Female Education Society, 147
Fenner, Richard, 62, 68
Fernandina, Fla., 192
Finch, Josiah J., 132
Fire (1922), 201
Fire, church (1871), 139, 177-80,
Firemen's Tournament, 195-96
First Bishop of North Carolina,
see Pettigrew, Charles
Fiske, Samuel, 73
Flag, 201-2, 211
Flanner, Bennett, 139
Flora Macdonald College, 131
Florida, 186, 192, 195
Floyd, Thomas, 73
Fly the, Augustus M., 179
Fontaine, Peter, 27, 50
Fonveille (Fonvielle, Fonville),
John, 38, 47, 55, 68, 101
Forbes, Edward M., 6, 170, 172-75,
Forbes, Stephen B., 172, 219
Forey, Martin R., 132
Fort Johnston, 90
Fort Raleigh, 9
Foster, Fran, 26
Fox, George, 12, 13
Fox, Mordecai. 44
France, 15, 214
Franck, John, 6S
Frank. Martin, 25
Freedom of Worship, 10, 14, 29-31,
Freeman, Frederick. 120
Freeman. George W., 120
Freeman. Jonathan Otis. 110, 120
Free Will Baptists. 132-33
French. 20. 22, 30. 51. 52, 100
French Huguenots, 19, 42
Fulcher. Thomas, 33
Ftiiford, Joseph, 27
Fulford, Joseph, 179. 219
Fundamental Constitution, 10
Furman Academy. 132
Furman, Richard, Jr., 131
Furman University, 131
Gale, Christopher, 23, 26, 27
Gale. Miles. 23
Garden Club, 212
Garzia, John, 40
Gaston, Alexander, 65
Gaston, Catherine Jane, 125
Gaston, Eliza Ann Worthington.
Gaston, William. 92-93, 115, 117,
125, 132, 142-43, 153, 154, 156
Gates County, 40
General Assembly, 14, 15, 16, 23,
24. 27. 29. 33. 34-35. 42. 48, 49,
50. 52, 56, 61, 69. 74. S3, 98, 100-
1 : see Assembly Acts
General Convention, 97, 102, 103,
109. 110. 122. 141. 164. 1S6, 190,
General Seminary, 170, 1S7
Geneva College, 127. 144
George II. 29. 44-46. 65, 12S, 134
George III. 52, 59. 61, 65, 66, 67.
SO, 82, S3, 86, 91
George, T. M. N., 6, 188-91
Georgetown, 125, 136
Georgia, 65. 66. 190. 192
German, 19. 20, 21. 22, 23
Germantown, battle of, 174
Gibbons, Cardinal, 132
Giffard, W,. 77
Girls' Friendly Societv, 190
Glebes. 47, 50, 52. 60. 66, 69. 92, 93
Golden Jubilee Anniversary, Dio-
cese of East Carolina, 207-8, 210
Good, William, 101
Gooding, Jacob, 173, 179, ISO. 212,
Goodman, John R., 6, 124, 141-42,
Good Shepherd Hospital, 214
Gordon, Pat. 6S
Gordon, William, 16
Gordon, William B., 175
Grace Chapel, 197
Grace Church, Baltimore, 163
Grace Church, Plymouth, 170
Grace Church, Whiteville, 199
Graham, J. W., 17, 39, 42, 43
Granville, Bevil, 30
Granville County, 76
Gravatt, Bishop, 216
Graves, Richard, 25
Graves, Thomas, 55
Graves end, 19
Gray, James W., 174
Gray, Thomas, 77
Green, F., 107
Green, James, Jr., 77
Green, John. 6S
Green, William Mercer, 1S6
Greene. Henry F., 6. 15S-61
Greene, Nathaniel, 99
Greensboro, 132, 204
Greensboro Xews, 171
Greenville. X. C, 197
Greenwood Cemetery, 130
Grirhn, Charles, 61
Grirhn, Elizabeth, 205
Griffin, Moses, 156
Griffin School. 14S, 151, 1S9
Griffin, William W„ 197, 220
Groenendyke, Corn., 6S
Guerry, Bishop. 216
Guilford Battleground X'ational
Guion, George B., 213
Guion, Isaac. 101, 109
Guion, John A., 219
Guion, John A., 221
Guion. John W„ 124, 139, 147, 219
Guion, Owen H„ 220
Guion, W. B. R., 220
Gurley, the Rev. Mr., 106-7
Hahn's Bakery, 177
Hagerstown. 117, 118
Hale, Charles S., 6, 1S3-S4
Hale, Louise Weed [Mrs. Charles
Halifax, 64. 73, 92, 93
Hall, Clement, 40-41
Hall, William G„ 173, 219
Hailing, Solomon, 6, 105-7, 109,
Hamilton College, 187
Hammondsport, N. Y., 206
Hancock Creek, 21
Hancock, William, 25
Harding, Nathaniel, 186
Hardy, Ben, 77
Hare, Edward, 77
Hare, Moses, 77
Harnett, Cornelius, 77
Harper's Weekly, 168
Harrison, Hannah, 189
Hartford, Conn., 164
Harvey, John, 76, 77
Hasell, James, 77
Haslen, Thomas, 62, 101
Hatch, D., 219
Hatch, Lemuel, 55
Haughton, T. B., 180
Haughton, Thomas G., 6, 162
Hawkins, Philemon, 77
Hawks, Cicero S., 117, 152
Hawks, Francis, 152
Hawks, Francis L., 11, 13, 17, 18,
22, 66, 78, 97, 117, 127, 152-54,
Hawks, John, 66, 67, 74, 77, 99, 152
Hawks, Julie, 152
Hawks, William X., 6, 141, 144,
147, 148, 151-52, 158, 173
Hawley, Joseph R., 171
Haywood, Marshall DeLancey, 75,
Haywood, William, 77
Heath, Mollie, 212
Henderson, Archibald, 80, 101, 107,
Hendren, Elizabeth Mayhew, 134
Herritage, Yv illiam, 38
Hewes, Joseph, 77
Hillsboro, 78, 120, 148, 193
Hines, Peter E., 173
Hines, Thomas, 77
Hobbs, Christopher Gregory, 38-39
Hoeger, Henrv, 20
Holidays, 23, 29
Hollister, Dr. William, 131
Hollister, William, 145
Holly Springs, Miss., 153
Holy Innocents Day, 181
Hooper, the Rev. William, 132, 138
Hooper, William, 132
Homer, Junius M., 198, 216
Horner and Graves School, 193
Hoskins, Joseph A., 101
Howard, Josiah, 127
Howard, Martin, 80, 81
Howard, Narcissa Hatch, 127
Howe, Bishop, 186
Howe, Robert, 77
Howe, Thomas Clifford, 62, 67, 68
Howell, Peter, 132
Hubbard, Fordyce M., 6, 149-50
Hughes, Frank W., 220
Hughes, J. B., 220
Hughes, Jane Graham, 189
Hughes, Jennie Daves, 189
Hughes, John, 173, 179, 188, 212,
Hughes, John D., 183
Hughes, Mrs. Frank W., 207
Hughes, N. C, 208
Hunt, Mrs. Eunice Edwards Pol-
Hunter, E. S., 159
Huske, B. P., 6, 180, 197-99, 207
Huske, Joseph, 44
Hyde Precinct, 16, 25
Improvement Fund, 197
Indians, 17, 19. 23, 27, 51, 52, 54,
Industrious Society, 141
Infidels, 51, 54, 92-93
Ireland, 27, 50, 76, 155
Iron Fence, 189
Irving, Thomas P., 6, 112-18, 119
Irwin, M. A., 128, 135, 157
Ives, Levi Silliman, 140, 145, 147,
148, 152, 158, 164, 170, 172, 173,
Jacksonville, Fla., 186
James I, 45
James, John, 33
Jardine Organ Company, 180-81
Jarvis, Moses, 122, 126, 136, 138,
139, 141, 219
Jarvis, Moses W., 159, 166, 219
Jasper, James Bryan, 153
Jewish Synagogue, 133
John's Parish, Va., 216
Johnson, Guion Griffis, 63, 146, 176
Johnson, R. I., 201, 214, 215
Johnston County, 39, 49
Johnston, Gabriel, 29, 72
Johnston, Samuel, 77, 102
Johnston, Samuel J., 170
Jonas, William, 55
Jones, Asa, 219
Jones County, 21, 127
Jones, John Haywood, 201, 221
Jones, Joseph, 68
Jones, Marmaduke, 77
Joyner, Edmund, 174
Judd, Bethel, 121, 122, 124, 198
Judd, Mehitable, 124
Judd, William, 124
Junior Auxiliary, 198
Junior Choir, 211
Justice, Alex, 159
Justice, J. A., 159
Justice, J. C, 219
Justice, John R., 219
Kafer, Oscar A., 221
Kansas City, 200
Kimball, Fiske, 75
Kinston, 100, 175, 179, 199, 202,
Knight, Tobias, 26
Knox, Andrew, 77
Kocherthal, Josuah, 20
Kyle, William, 219
Lacy, Ben R., 131
Lacy, Ben R., Jr., 131
Lacy, Drury, 131
Ladies Memorial Association, 156
Ladies Sewing Society, 160, 177
Lady Blessington Cannon, 136
LaGrange College, 130
Lake Scuppernong, 110
La Montaigne, Kate, 214
Lane, Hardy B., 139
Lansdown, Lord, 30
LaPierre, John, 30, 36, 42
Lawson, John, 22, 37, 41
Lay, Bishop, 164
Leech, Joseph, 62, 77, 103, 104, 114
Leech, Mary (Mrs. R. D. Spaight),
Leigh, John, 103, 106, 107
Lente, Michael, 145
Living Christmas Tree, 212
Locke, John, 10
London, 20, 21, 44, 45, 131
London, Bishop of, see Bishop of
London, John Rutherford, 121, 198
Long, John S., 183, 220
Long Island, 154
Long Wharf, 207
Lords Proprietors, 10, 14, 16, 27
Lossing, Benson J., 75
Lottery, 52, 99
Louisiana, 100, 153
Lovick, H. J., 220
Lovick, John, 21
Lovick, Thomas, 21
Lumsden, Mrs. H. C, 200, 206
Lutherans, 19, 20, 21, 22
Lyman, Theodore Benedict, 164,
179, 186, 187, 193
Lynch, John, 76
MacDowell, John, 55
Mackey, John, 25
MacKinnon, Daniel G., 6, 200-2,
MacKinnon, Mrs. D. G., 202
Macilwean (Mackilwean), Francis,
Madara, Guy H., 6, 199, 204-6, 213
Madison, Bishop James, 105
Magee, Mary, 32
Makeley, M., 220
Manakin Town, 19
Manila, 114, 205
Manly, M. E., 155
Mann, Albert W., 171
Marietta, Ga., 190
Marriage Acts, 26, 34-35, 59, 66,
74, 82, 93
Marriages, 21, 26, 29, 34-35, 93,
Marriner, E. R., 220
Marsden, Richard, 29, 30
Marshall, Matthias M., 140, 146,
Marshfield Hills, N. J., 202
Martin County, 102, 119
Martin, Francis X., 75, 100
Martin, Josiah, 44, 82-84, 85-86,
Mary Knoll, N. Y., 132
Maryland, 10, 30, 97, 112, 187, 199,
Mason, Mary Bryan (Mrs. Richard
S.), 37, 46, 128
Mason, Richard S., 6, 46, 122, 124-
28, 136, 144, 173
Masons, 49, 100, 105, 106, 113;
see also St. John's Lodge, A. F.
& A. M.
Massachusetts, 155, 156, 187
Massachusetts Regiment, 45th.
Volunteers, 168, 171
Massachusetts Woman's Auxiliary,
Matchepungo Bluff, 16
McCartney, James, 76-77
McClure, R. E., 148
McClure, William, 100
McConnell, S. D., 11, 13, 97, 104
McCulloch, Alexander, 77
McDuffie, H. S., 208
McFarlin, Daniel, 25
McKenzie, William, 103
McKinlay, James, 174
McKinlay, Mrs. James, 170, 174
McKinne, William, 77
McLean, Ann Daves, 189
McRae, Cameron F., 6, 147-48,
Meade Parish, Va., 216
Meadows, E. H., 190
Memorial Chapel, Tryon Palace
Wing, 174, 177, 181, 183, 189
Memorials, 158, 174, 180, 189,
207-8, 211, 212
Men's Work, 200
Merchants and Miners Line, 180
Meredith, Thomas, 131-32
Meredith College, 131
Merriday, Thomas, 27
Merrit, John, 139
Messenger of Hope, 195
Methodists, 22, 31, 54, 62, 83, 119,
129-30, 133-34, 137
Micklejohn, George, 72, 73, 78, 103
Miller, George Frazier, 215
Miller, Henry W., 163
Miller, Stephen F., 120, 127, 128,
134, 138, 139, 140, 154, 157, 168,
Miller, William, 73
Mission Herald, 171, 195
Missionary Society, Christ Church,
Missions and Missionaries, 10-17,
23, 31, 40-43, 54, 62, 69, 73, 83,
96, 124, 126, 130, 131, 179, 181,
193, 198, 202, 206, 217
Mississippi, 100, 132, 153, 154, 186
Mississippi School for Blind, 132
Mitchell, G. N., 221
Mitchell, Joshua, 139
Mobile, Ala., 172
Moir, James, 41-42, 69, 72
Moline's Creek, 16
Monroe, James, 105, 114, 125-26
Montford, Joseph, 77
Monumental Church, 137
Moore, Adam, 38
Moore, Hight C, 135, 140
Moore, John, 68, 77
Moore, Louis T., 171
Moore, M., 77
Moore, Madame Mary, 114
Moore, Richard C, 119, 122, 125,
Moore, William P., 158
Moore's Creek Bridge Battle, 100
Morgan, S. A., 215
Morganton, 161, 166
Morris, Mrs. B. R., 156
Morris, Parker W., 221
Morse, Jedidiah, 106, 108
Morton, Andrew, 72, 73
Moseley, Edward, 26
Mountain Lakes, N. J., 204
Mumford, D., 139
Nash, Abner, 77, 99, 117
Nash, Francis, 81
Nash, Mary McKinlay, 189
Nashville, Tenn., 135
National Cemetery, 156
National Commission on Evange-
National Guard, 209
Naval Reserves, 198-99
Neal, G. W., 183
Neale, Abner, 99
Neale, Christopher, 68
Negroes, 54, 76, 120, 124, 125, 130,
141, 151, 166, 173-74, 181, 201,
214-15; Negro Congregations,
127, 142, 151, 173-74, 181, 214-
15; Negro Hospital, 201, 214
Nelson, John, 25, 27
Nelson, Margaret D., 189, 190, 214
Neuse'River, 20, 21, 25, 40, 71, 156
Newark College, 127
New Bern, captured, 167-69; in-
corporated, 27; laid out, 136
New Bern Academy, 99, 105, 110,
112, 115, 142, 149, 188
New Bern Benevolent Society, 144-
New Bern Historical Society, 211
New Bern Library, 81, 140
New Bern Sun-Journal, 128, 134,
199, 206, 209
New Bern Times, 135
New Brunswick, 65
New England, 19, 31, 54, 90, 130,
149, 169, 183
New Hampshire, 184
New Hanover County, 49, 73
New Haven, 153
New Jersey, 19, 156, 179, 202, 204
New Orleans, 153
Newport, 63, 169
Newport News, Va., 216
Newspaper, first in province, 33
New York, 65, 70, 80, 82, 104, 145,
153, 154, 164, 169, 204, 206, 215
New York Historical Society, 66,
75, 78, 117, 157
New York Review, 153
New York University, 169-70
Nixon, Richard, 101
Noe, Walter R., 210, 214
Norfolk, 110, 163
Northampton County, 73
North Carolina Baptist State Con-
North Carolina Christian, 135
North Carolina Christian Advo-
North Carolina Christian Mis-
sionary Convention, 135
North Carolina Gazette, 117, 118
North Carolina Historical Com-
North Carolina Magazine, 64
North Carolina State Firemen's
Northern Episcopal Church, 164
Northrop, Harry, 132
Nunn, Etta, 133
Nunn, R. A., 221
Nursery School, 189, 207
Oaths, 23-24, 26, 34
Ohio River, 99
O'Kellyan Christian Church, 132
Old Dominion Steam Ship Com-
Old Mullet Road, 163
Old South Church, Boston, 44
Oliver, Mary, 190
Oliver, Samuel, 159, 219
Oliver, William H., 166, 173, 179,
Orange County, 73, 124
Orangeburg, S. C, 209
Organ, 136, 138, 178, 180-81, 190
Orphans, 32, 58
Our Living and Our Dead, 120, 128,
134, 138, 140
Outten, Matthew A., 159, 219
Oxford Orphanage, 132
Oxford Seminary, 132
Palatines, 19, 20, 26, 33
Palm Sunday, 183
Pamlico River, 16, 25
Pampti cough, 16; see Bath
Papists, see Catholic
Parish Bulletin, 210-11
Parish House, 180, 189-90, 192,
200, 201, 207, 210
Parish Meetings, 192, 195, 197,
Parish Registers, 124-25, 142, 149,
151, 166, 168
Parkinson, Bernard, 68
Parliament, 10, 15, 16
Parrot, Professor, 63, 85
Paschal, G. W., 97
Pasquotank, 12, 16, 17, 25, 61, 73
Pasteur, Edward G., 219
Patronage, 59, 111
Patterson, George, 170-71
Peace College, 131
Peace Prayers, 211
Pembroke, 99, 117
Penick, E. A., 186
Pennsylvania, 102, 105, 141, 145,
Pennsylvania Diocese, 127
Permanent Endowment Fund, 213
Perquimans, 12, 16, 24, 25, 40
Peterkin, Bishop, 216
Petersburg, Va., 217
Peterson, Elizabeth, 180
Pettigrew Cemetery, 111
Pettigrew, Charles, 97, 102, 103,
104, 106, 107, 109-11, 120
Pettigrew, James Johnston, 110
Pettigrew Memorial State Park
Pettigrew, William S., 104, 108, 111
Pettigrew's Chapel, 110
Pews, 162; free, 185, 195; sale,
138-39, 140; trimmed, 142
Philadelphia, 93, 102, 103, 105, 109,
110, 125, 153, 169, 186, 200, 204,
Philadelphia Divinity School, 204
Philippine Islands, 205
Phillips, Henry, 12
Phillips, John, 119-20, 124
Pilgrimage, Garden Club, 212
Pilmoor, Joseph, 83-84
Pindar, John, 68
Pitt County, 120
Pitt, William, 51
Pleasantville, N. J., 202
Plyler, M. T., 134
Plymouth, N. C, 158, 170
Poll Tax, 27, 38
Pollock, Cullen, 68
Pollock, Thomas, 36, 37, 38, 39, 68
Pool, Henry C, 183
Poorhouses, 87-88, 99
Porch, 180, 211
Postoffice, 188, 204-5
Prayer Book, 29, 50, 97, 102, 141,
Prayer Book, gift of King George
II, 45-46, 127
Prayers for King, 91
Presbyterian, 12, 13, 14, 15, 19, 22,
24, 30, 31, 34-35, 54, 72, 74, 82,
110, 120, 129-31, 134, 137, 145,
147, 148, 159, 169, 170, 177, 197,
Presentation, 66, 73
Price, N. E., 179
Price, Thomas F., 132
Princeton College, 112, 130
Printing Press, 33
Protestant Episcopal Church, 97,
III, 121, 168
Protestants, 19, 20, 33, 92, 93, 169
Providence, R. I., 118
Provincial Conventions, 90-91, 99
Pulaski, Va., 216
Pumphrey, Charles Tilden, 213
Purefoy, Nicholas, 33
Quakers, 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 21, 22,
23-24, 30, 31, 36, 54
Queen Anne, 15, 16
Rainsford, Giles, 17, 21
Raleigh, 46, 114, 118, 120, 124, 127,
131, 132, 138, 145, 158, 161, 175,
181, 193, 198, 217
Raleigh Register, 113, 118
Randolph, Bishop, 193
Ransom, Robert, 220
Ravenscroft, John Stark, 137-38,
140, 145, 216
Records, burned, 124, 142
Rectories, 29, 158-59, 166, 188,
Red Springs, 131
Reed, Hannah (Mrs. James), 96
Reed, James, 6, 47-49, 52, 54, 55-
56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66-67,
68-71, 73, 76, 80, 82, 83, 85-88,
90, 91, 95-97, 98, 112, 155, 211
Reformed Church, 19, 20, 22
Regulators, 78, 80, 82, 89
Relief Society, 175, 178, 179, 181,
Renovations, 190, 197, 200, 201,
Repairs, on church, 139, 197
Revolutionary War, 35, 74, 87,
89-91, 95, 97, 99, 100, 105, 111,
119, 136, 174
Rew, Solomon, 47-48
Rhode Island, 80, 86, 154, 156
Rice, John, 67
Rice, theological student, 175
Rice, W. J., 220
Richmond, plantation, 80
Richmond, Va., 137, 193, 216
Ring, John, 169
Riverside Methodist Church, 133,
Roanoke College, 216
Roanoke Island, 9
Roberts, Dita, 128, 149, 150, 161,
171, 176, 177, 182, 191, 196, 199
Roberts, Edward B., 220
Roberts, Frederick C, 128, 166,
173, 183, 220
Roberts, George, 38
Roberts, George H., 179, 183, 188,
190, 192, 197, 200, 212, 213, 214,
Roberts, George H., Jr., 201, 220,
Roberts, John M., 139, 219
Roberts, Mrs. F. C, 156
Roberts, Mrs. G. H., 190
Rochester, N. Y., 206
Rokeby Plantation, 186
Romanism, 145; see also Catholic
Rotary Club, 200, 205
Rotation System, vestry elections,
Rouse, J. Hill, 168-69
Rowan County, 175
Royal Governors, 29, 31, 36, 44, 49,
50-52, 56, 62, 65-67, 70, 73, 86,
Rural Work, 210
Rustell, Richard, 27
Rutherford, John, 77
Sabbath (Sunday), 23, 29, 50, 83,
110, 168, 177, 179, 185, 188, 190,
193, 200, 210, 214
Sacristy, 180, 211
St. Agnes Chapter, 211
St. Andrew's Church, Greensboro,
St. Ann's Chapter, 96, 211
St. Augustine School, 181, 217
St. Bartholomew Church, Phila-
St. Cecilia Society, 212
St. Cyprian's Church, 131, 173-74,
181, 201, 214-15
St. David's Parish, Creswell, 110
St. Elizabeth Hospital, Shanghai,
St. George Parish, Hyde County, 42
St. George, Northampton County,
St. James Church, Marietta, Ga.,
St. James, Philadelphia, 153
St. James, Richmond, 216
St. James, Wilmington, 42, 49, 73,
107, 121, 123, 164, 168, 171, 186,
193, 207, 216, 217
St. John's Chapel, New York, 164
St. John's Church, Fayetteville,
St. John's Church, Jacksonville,
St. John's Day, 116
St. John's Lodge, A. F. & A. M.,
80, 81, 100, 101, 105, 108, 115-18,
125-26, 128, 153: see also Masons
St. John's Parish, Bute, 73
St. John's Parish, Carteret, 27, 42,
48, 63, 83
St. John's Parish, Onslow, 42
St. John's Parish, Pasquotank, 73
St. Jude's Church, 124
St. Luke's Church, New York, 145
St. Luke's Hospital, 209
St. Luke's Parish, Salisbury, 162
St. Mark's, Pleasantville, N. J., 202
St. Mark's, Richmond, 216
St. Mary's, Kinston, 199
St. Mary's School, Raleigh, 145,
St. Matthew's Church, Geneva, N.
St. Matthew's Parish, Orange
County, 42, 73
St. Patrick's, Dobbs County, 73
St. Patrick's, Johnston County, 42
St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 131
St. Paul's Catholic Church, 132
St. Paul's Parish, Beaufort, 181
St. Paul's, Edenton, 14, 36-37, 41,
42, 102, 110, 121, 125, 141, 208
St. Paul's, Greenville, 197
St. Paul's, Newport News, 216
St. Paul's, Norfolk, 163
St. Paul's, Richmond, 193
St. Peter's, Baltimore, 163
St. Peter's, Philadelphia, 125
St. Peter's, Washington, N. C,
St. Philip's, Brunswick, 42, 73
St. Stephen's, New York, 153
St. Thomas Church, New York,
St. Thomas Mission, 151, 167, 179
St. Thomas Parish, Bath, 25, 36,
42, 73, 217-18
Salem, Va., 216
Salem College, 131
Salisbury, 162, 179
Sampson, John, 77
Santee River, 19
Satterthwaite, L. M., 221
School Acts, 42, 61; recommended,
51, 52, 61
Schoolmasters, 29, 50, 54-55, 61,
62, 70, 85, 112, 121; see also re-
ferences under names of school-
Schools, classical school, 160; cook-
ing and sewing school, 198; other
local schools, 120; parish school
for poor, 160, 162, 166, 174, 175,
183, 189; parochial school, 175,
179, 181, 189; public school, 61-
63, 64, 68-71, 76, 82, 85-86, 99,
112, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 212;
public schoolhouse used by
General Assembly, 74
Scotland, 41, 137
Scotland Neck, 120
Scott, Andrew, 68
Secession, 164, 175
Secretary of State, 29
Sedgewick Seminary, 132
Seifert, Charles A., 220
Sewanee, 195, 217
Sewing Society, 212
Shackleford, John, 27
Shanghai, China, 217
Shaw, John, 27
Sheets, Jacob, 25
Shepard, Charles, 144, 219
Shepard, Miss, 111
Sheppard, Jacob, 68, 77
Shields, Van Winder, 6, 183, 185-
Shine, James, 55
Simmons, Wentworth S.. 198, 220
Simpson, Herbert, 188, 190
Simpson, John, 77
Simpson, Samuel, 159
Singleton, Spyers, 99, 100
Singleton, Thomas S., 219
Sitgreaves, John, 99
Sitgreaves, Thomas, 68
Skinner, H. A., 173, 214
Slocumb, John, 25
Slavery, 124, 163; see also Negroes
Smith, H. B., 220
Smith, John, 25
Smith, John, 68
Smith, Michael, 49
Smith, Thomas, 25
Smithfield, Va., 209
Society for Propagation of the
Gospel in Foreign Parts, 12, 15,
16, 17, 21, 23, 30, 40, 41, 42, 48,
54, 55, 56, 62, 64, 68, 69, 72, 73,
76, 77, 79, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91
Society of Cincinnati, 175
South Carolina, 19, 57, 58, 65, 73,
107, 132, 163, 186, 209
South Carolina College, 138
Southern Episcopal Church, 164
Southern Historical Society, 120
Southern Virginia, 193
Spaight, Charles, 138, 140, 141
Spaight, Elizabeth Wilson (Mrs.
Spaight, Mrs. Richard Dobbs, Sr.
(Mary Leech), 114
Spaight, Richard, 114
Spaight, Richard Dobbs, 98, 99,
101, 113, 114, 117
Spaight, Richard Dobbs, Jr., 117,
Sparrow, F., 139
Spring, Robert, 33
Sprunt, James, Historical Publica-
Stanly, Harvey, 147, 172
Stanly, J. G., 139, 159
Stanly, John, 113, 117, 121, 138,
139, 142-43, 153, 154, 156, 198-99
Stanly, John Wright, 98, 99, 101,
113, 136, 142, 155, 211
Stanly, Mrs. John Wright, 98, 142
Stanly Hospital, 169
Starkey, John, 48, 61
State Supreme Court, 153
Stephens, M. C, 136, 138, 139
Stevens, Charles L., 192, 220
Stevenson, George S., 159
Stevenson, M. D. W., 190, 220
Stewart, Alexander, 47, 58, 69, 73,
79, 83, 96
Stewart. Andrew, 68
Stith, Charles H., 141, 200, 220,
Stith, Laurence A., 201, 221
Stone, Andrew L., 169
Stony Point, 174
Strange, Bishop Robert, 192, 193,
Strange, Col. Robert, 193
Strebeck, George, 6, 119-20, 121
Stryker, J. V., 160-61
Sturgis, Russell, Jr., 168
Sugg, Aquila, 77
Sunday, see Sabbath
Sunday School, 141, 168, 178, 179,
180, 181, 183, 189, 192, 197, 200,
201, 202, 207, 211, 212
Swann, Samuel, 48
Swiss, 19, 20, 22
Tabernacle Baptist Church, 133
Tarboro, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106,
109, 119, 120, 124, 174, 186, 187
Taylor, J. L., 215
Taylor, J. Mitchell, 202
Taylor, Janet, 145
Taylor, John R., 135
Taylor, Mrs., 125
Taylor, N. W., 208
Taylor, the Rev. Mr., 97
Taylor-Nixon- Ward House, 155
Taxes, 27, 37, 38, 39, 51, 71, 87
Temple University, 169
Tennessee, 99, 195
Thames River, 19
Thanksgiving, 51, 168, 201
Thanksgiving Dinner, bequest of
the Rev. E. M. Forbes, 181
Thomas, C. R., 220
Thomas, Henderson Lee, 156-57
Thompson, Alice A., 159
Thompson, John, 41
Thomson, William, 77
Tillotson's Sermons, 70
Tinker, George E., 183
Todd, Vincent H., 22
Tomlinson, Thomas, 62, 63, 68-71,
76, 85-86, 96, 101
Trapnell, Philip, 32
Treadway, Amos C, 129-30
Trent River, 19, 20, 21, 33, 36, 99,
Trenton, N. J., 110
Trinity College, Hartford, 164
Trinity Church, Chocowinity, 119
Trinity Church, Claremont, N. H.,
Trinity Church, Lumberton, 199
Trinity Church, New York, 44
Tryon, William, 65-67, 68, 69, 72-
75, 76-78, 79, 82
Tryon's Palace, 33, 74-75, 90, 112-
13, 115, 116, 152, 174, 175, 177,
Tucker, B. D., 216
Tuttle, Bishop, 216
Typhoid Fever, 169
Tyrrell County, 110
Union Baptist, 132
Union Seminary, 131
Union Soldiers, 118, 167-69, 171
United Daughters of the Con-
U. S. Military Academy, 122
U. S. Naval Academy, 199
University of Louisiana, 153
University of North Carolina, 113,
114, 138, 149, 153, 157, 164, 193,
University of Pennsylvania, 125
University of the South, 195, 216,
Upperville, Va., 216
Urmstone, John, 17, 23
Vache, Jean A., 204
Valle Cruris, 145
Vardell, Charles G., 131
Vardell, Charles G., Jr., 131
Vass, L. C, 13, 22, 31, 33, 52, 91,
93, 97, 117, 118, 120, 131, 134,
Vass, L. C, Jr., 131
Vested Choir, 190
Vestry, Christ Church, 1, 25-27,
34, 37, 39, 44, 47, 51-52, 55, 64,
66, 70, 101, 103, 113, 124, 127,
128, 138, 144, 147, 148, 150, 152,
158, 160, 166, 178, 180, 184, 185,
188, 189, 190, 192, 195, 197, 198,
200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207,
Vestry Acts, 15, 25-26, 34, 42, 56,
58-60, 62, 74, 87-88
Vestry Minutes, see footnotes at
end of chapters
Vestry Room, 136
Vestrymen, 14, 23, 26, 27, 42, 50,
51, 52, 58-60, 74, 91-92, 197, 200,
205, 212, 213; number changed,
192, 197, 205
Virginia, 9, 12, 17, 19, 30, 33, 73,
106, 119, 120, 124, 126, 128, 137,
163, 193, 209, 216, 217
Virginia Theological Seminary, 216
Waddell, Gabrielle (Mrs. A. M.),
Waddell, Hugh, 77
Wadsworth, Edward, 130
Wadsworth, Sarah E., 214
Wait, Samuel, 132
Wake Forest College, 132, 175
Walker, Henderson, 12, 14, 37
War Between the States, 118, 133,
154, 156, 164, 172, 173, 174, 181,
War of 1812, 120, 122-23
War, others, see Revolutionary
War and World War
Ward, Enoch, 27
Ward, Mrs. C. T., 190
Ward, Mrs. D. L., Sr., 206
Ward, Richard, 77
Ware, C. C, 135
Warne, J. A., 132
Warren, Thomas D., 197, 220
Warrenton, 119, 124, 178
Washington, 119, 124, 209, 216
Washington, D. C, 209
Washington, George, 98, 101, 105,
Washington, John N., 159, 219
Washington County, 110
Waters, Joseph, 32
Watson, Alfred A., 6, 44, 140, 146,
158, 162-63, 165, 166-71, 173,
186, 188, 192, 193, 216
Weeks, Stephen B., 33, 89, 97
Weeping Arch, cemetery entrance,
Welsh, 21, 22
Wesley Brothers, 119
West, John Spence, 121-22, 199
West Indies, 125
West Point, N. Y., 122
West Virginia, 209, 216
Weston, James A., 175
Wetmore, William R., 167-68
Wheeler, John H., 118
White, John, 9, 11
White, Robert, 109
White, William, 102, 103, 109, 112,
Whitecoat, Bishop, 129
Whitefield, George, 31, 65
Whitefield, Theodore, 132
Whitehurst, Henry P., 221
Whitehurst, Richard, 27
Whitehurst, Sadie, 190
Whitford, Col. John D., 39, 93,
101, 117, 118, 134, 135, 140, 154-
55, 157, 165, 171, 176, 182
William III, 12, 19
William and Mary College, 123,
Nofth Caroline. Siste Library
Williams, Charles E., 6, 210-14
Williams, John, 62, 68
Williams, L. G. H., 6, 192
Williams, William Joseph, 105, 156
Williamsburg, Va., 123, 137
Williamson, Hugh, 72, 75
Williamson, Richard, 27
Wills, John, 73
Wilmington, 44. 52, 69, 90, 105,
107, 119, 121, 122, 123, 126, 164,
168, 171, 186, 187, 190, 193, 198,
207, 209, 216, 217
Wilmington Convocation, 190
Wilson, James L., 102, 103, 106,
Wilson, William, 38
Wilton, William, 68
Windley, Mrs. M. O., 96, 190, 214
Windley, the Rev. Mr., 179
Windsor, 187, 208
Winfield, Benjamin A., 174
Winslow, John, 121-22, 199
Winston, Francis D., 187, 208
Winston-Salem Journal, 118
Winthrop, John S., 219
Witherspoon, David, 101
Witherspoon, John, 130
Woman Suffrage, 197
Woman's Auxiliary, 96, 198, 205,
211, 212, 214, 216
Women Delegates, 208
Women Vestrymen, 208, 210
Women's Church Organizations,
96, 141, 142, 160, 175, 177, 178,
189, 190, 198, 201, 205, 211, 212,
Works Progress Administration,
World War, 198, 201, 214
Worthington, Mr., 125
Wren, Christopher, 131
Wright, Carolina, 193
Wright, Thomas H., 193
Yellow Fever, 69, 98, 110, 112, 113,
Young Men's Christian Associa-
tion, 168, 214
Young People's Service League,
Zollikofer, Jacob C, 20
nit RARY COMh
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GC 283.756192 C313c
Carraway, Gertrude Sprague, 1896-
Crown of life; history of Christ Church,
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